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Molecular Mechanisms Preventing Senescence in Response to Prolonged Darkness in a Desiccation-Tolerant Plant


Durgud, Meriem; Gupta, Saurabh; Ivanov, Ivan; Omidbakhshfard, M Amin; Benina, Maria; Alseekh, Saleh; Staykov, Nikola; Hauenstein, Mareike; Dijkwel, Paul P; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Toneva, Valentina; Brotman, Yariv; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Gechev, Tsanko S (2018). Molecular Mechanisms Preventing Senescence in Response to Prolonged Darkness in a Desiccation-Tolerant Plant. Plant Physiology, 177(3):1319-1338.

Abstract

The desiccation-tolerant plant can withstand months of darkness without any visible senescence. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of this adaptation to prolonged (30 d) darkness and subsequent return to light. plants remained green and viable throughout the dark treatment. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that darkness regulated several transcription factor (TF) genes. Stress- and autophagy-related TFs such as , , , , and were up-regulated, while chloroplast- and flowering-related TFs such as , , , , and were repressed. , a negative regulator of photomorphogenesis and promoter of senescence, also was down-regulated. In response to darkness, most of the photosynthesis- and photorespiratory-related genes were strongly down-regulated, while genes related to autophagy were up-regulated. This occurred concomitant with the induction of SUCROSE NON-FERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASES (SnRK1) signaling pathway genes, which regulate responses to stress-induced starvation and autophagy. Most of the genes associated with chlorophyll catabolism, which are induced by darkness in dark-senescing species, were either unregulated () or repressed (, , and ). Metabolite profiling revealed increases in the levels of many amino acids in darkness, suggesting increased protein degradation. In darkness, levels of the chloroplastic lipids digalactosyldiacylglycerol, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol decreased, while those of storage triacylglycerols increased, suggesting degradation of chloroplast membrane lipids and their conversion to triacylglycerols for use as energy and carbon sources. Collectively, these data show a coordinated response to darkness, including repression of photosynthetic, photorespiratory, flowering, and chlorophyll catabolic genes, induction of autophagy and SnRK1 pathways, and metabolic reconfigurations that enable survival under prolonged darkness.

Abstract

The desiccation-tolerant plant can withstand months of darkness without any visible senescence. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of this adaptation to prolonged (30 d) darkness and subsequent return to light. plants remained green and viable throughout the dark treatment. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that darkness regulated several transcription factor (TF) genes. Stress- and autophagy-related TFs such as , , , , and were up-regulated, while chloroplast- and flowering-related TFs such as , , , , and were repressed. , a negative regulator of photomorphogenesis and promoter of senescence, also was down-regulated. In response to darkness, most of the photosynthesis- and photorespiratory-related genes were strongly down-regulated, while genes related to autophagy were up-regulated. This occurred concomitant with the induction of SUCROSE NON-FERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASES (SnRK1) signaling pathway genes, which regulate responses to stress-induced starvation and autophagy. Most of the genes associated with chlorophyll catabolism, which are induced by darkness in dark-senescing species, were either unregulated () or repressed (, , and ). Metabolite profiling revealed increases in the levels of many amino acids in darkness, suggesting increased protein degradation. In darkness, levels of the chloroplastic lipids digalactosyldiacylglycerol, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol decreased, while those of storage triacylglycerols increased, suggesting degradation of chloroplast membrane lipids and their conversion to triacylglycerols for use as energy and carbon sources. Collectively, these data show a coordinated response to darkness, including repression of photosynthetic, photorespiratory, flowering, and chlorophyll catabolic genes, induction of autophagy and SnRK1 pathways, and metabolic reconfigurations that enable survival under prolonged darkness.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
07 Faculty of Science > Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Physiology
Life Sciences > Genetics
Life Sciences > Plant Science
Date:July 2018
Deposited On:07 Mar 2019 10:30
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 10:09
Publisher:American Society of Plant Biologists
ISSN:0032-0889
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.18.00055
PubMed ID:29789435

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