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Effect of sodium fluoride on oral biofilm microbiota and enamel demineralization


Thurnheer, Thomas; Belibasakis, Georgios N (2018). Effect of sodium fluoride on oral biofilm microbiota and enamel demineralization. Archives of Oral Biology, 89:77-83.

Abstract

Objective
Fluoride is widely used as an anti-caries agent, e.g. in toothpastes and mouth rinses. However, the nature of the anti-caries action is not entirely clear. Mechanisms suspected to explain the cariostatic effect include inhibitory effects on acid formation by bacteria, inhibition of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, inhibition of enamel demineralization and enhancement of remineralizaton or combination thereof. The aim of this study was to examine with the supragingival Zurich in vitro biofilm model the effect of fluoride in NaF formulation, on the microbiota and on demineralization.
Methods
Biofilms consisting of Actinomyces oris, Candida albicans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus oralis, Veillonella dispar and Streptococcus sobrinus, were grown anaerobically on sintered hydroxyapatite or bovine enamel disks, exposed to 200, 400, and 1400 ppm of NaF, or 0.1% chlorhexidine (positive control). The biofilms were harvested after 64 h and CFUs were assessed for total bacteria. Demineralization of enamel disks was measured by quantitative light-induced fluorescence.
Results
NaF did not affect the bacterial numbers. No enamel mineral loss was observed at 1400 and 400 ppm of fluoride, whereas the pH of the surrounding medium was increased to 5.5 and 5.0, respectively, compared to the untreated control (pH 4.5 and mineral loss ΔF of −32%). At 1400 ppm NaF the biofilm’s EPS volume was also significantly reduced.
Conclusions
Administration of NaF completely prevented demineralization without affecting biofilm composition and growth. This protective effect may be attributed to the observed decrease in acid production or EPS volume, or to a shift in the de/remineralization balance.

Abstract

Objective
Fluoride is widely used as an anti-caries agent, e.g. in toothpastes and mouth rinses. However, the nature of the anti-caries action is not entirely clear. Mechanisms suspected to explain the cariostatic effect include inhibitory effects on acid formation by bacteria, inhibition of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, inhibition of enamel demineralization and enhancement of remineralizaton or combination thereof. The aim of this study was to examine with the supragingival Zurich in vitro biofilm model the effect of fluoride in NaF formulation, on the microbiota and on demineralization.
Methods
Biofilms consisting of Actinomyces oris, Candida albicans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus oralis, Veillonella dispar and Streptococcus sobrinus, were grown anaerobically on sintered hydroxyapatite or bovine enamel disks, exposed to 200, 400, and 1400 ppm of NaF, or 0.1% chlorhexidine (positive control). The biofilms were harvested after 64 h and CFUs were assessed for total bacteria. Demineralization of enamel disks was measured by quantitative light-induced fluorescence.
Results
NaF did not affect the bacterial numbers. No enamel mineral loss was observed at 1400 and 400 ppm of fluoride, whereas the pH of the surrounding medium was increased to 5.5 and 5.0, respectively, compared to the untreated control (pH 4.5 and mineral loss ΔF of −32%). At 1400 ppm NaF the biofilm’s EPS volume was also significantly reduced.
Conclusions
Administration of NaF completely prevented demineralization without affecting biofilm composition and growth. This protective effect may be attributed to the observed decrease in acid production or EPS volume, or to a shift in the de/remineralization balance.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic for Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology and Cariology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Cell Biology, Otorhinolaryngology, General Dentistry, General Medicine
Language:English
Date:1 May 2018
Deposited On:11 Feb 2019 11:25
Last Modified:11 Feb 2019 11:29
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0003-9969
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.010

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