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Streptococcus oralis maintains homeostasis in oral biofilms by antagonizing the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans


Thurnheer, T; Belibasakis, G N (2018). Streptococcus oralis maintains homeostasis in oral biofilms by antagonizing the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Molecular Oral Microbiology, 33(3):234-239.

Abstract

Bacteria residing in oral biofilms live in a state of dynamic equilibrium with one another. The intricate synergistic or antagonistic interactions between them are crucial for determining this balance. Using the six-species Zürich "supragingival" biofilm model, this study aimed to investigate interactions regarding growth and localization of the constituent species. As control, an inoculum containing all six strains was used, whereas in each of the further five inocula one of the bacterial species was alternately absent, and in the last, both streptococci were absent. Biofilms were grown anaerobically on hydroxyapatite disks, and after 64 h they were harvested and quantified by culture analyses. For visualization, fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used. Compared with the control, no statistically significant difference of total colony-forming units was observed in the absence of any of the biofilm species, except for Fusobacterium nucleatum, whose absence caused a significant decrease in total bacterial numbers. Absence of Streptococcus oralis resulted in a significant decrease in Actinomyces oris, and increase in Streptococcus mutans (P < .001). Absence of A. oris, Veillonella dispar or S. mutans did not cause any changes. The structure of the biofilm with regards to the localization of the species did not result in observable changes. In summary, the most striking observation of the present study was that absence of S. oralis resulted in limited growth of commensal A. oris and overgrowth of S. mutans. These data establish highlight S. oralis as commensal keeper of homeostasis in the biofilm by antagonizing S. mutans, so preventing a caries-favoring dysbiotic state.

Abstract

Bacteria residing in oral biofilms live in a state of dynamic equilibrium with one another. The intricate synergistic or antagonistic interactions between them are crucial for determining this balance. Using the six-species Zürich "supragingival" biofilm model, this study aimed to investigate interactions regarding growth and localization of the constituent species. As control, an inoculum containing all six strains was used, whereas in each of the further five inocula one of the bacterial species was alternately absent, and in the last, both streptococci were absent. Biofilms were grown anaerobically on hydroxyapatite disks, and after 64 h they were harvested and quantified by culture analyses. For visualization, fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used. Compared with the control, no statistically significant difference of total colony-forming units was observed in the absence of any of the biofilm species, except for Fusobacterium nucleatum, whose absence caused a significant decrease in total bacterial numbers. Absence of Streptococcus oralis resulted in a significant decrease in Actinomyces oris, and increase in Streptococcus mutans (P < .001). Absence of A. oris, Veillonella dispar or S. mutans did not cause any changes. The structure of the biofilm with regards to the localization of the species did not result in observable changes. In summary, the most striking observation of the present study was that absence of S. oralis resulted in limited growth of commensal A. oris and overgrowth of S. mutans. These data establish highlight S. oralis as commensal keeper of homeostasis in the biofilm by antagonizing S. mutans, so preventing a caries-favoring dysbiotic state.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 June 2018
Deposited On:06 Mar 2019 15:05
Last Modified:26 Feb 2020 08:13
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:2041-1006
Additional Information:This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Mol Oral Microbiol. 2018;33:234–239, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/omi.12216. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. (http://www.wileyauthors.com/self-archiving)
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/omi.12216
PubMed ID:29327482

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