A 9-year-old cat was referred with multiple, raised, ulcerative skin nodules in the region of the neck and dorsal head. Histopathological findings of a biopsied nodule were granulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis without multinucleated giant cells or caseous necrosis. In addition, by Ziehl-Neelsen staining numerous acid-fast intracellular bacilli were observed within the lesions. Mycobacterial culture showed growth of rough scotochromogenic colonies after 3 weeks of incubation. Molecular characterisation of the isolate identified Mycobacterium nebraskense as the cause of the infection. No phenotypic resistance was detected for the antimycobacterial agents tested. The cat was successfully treated with a combination of surgical excision and a 12 week course of antimicrobial therapy, including rifampicin combined with clarithromycin.
Relevance and novel information: To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of mycobacterial granulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis due to M nebraskense infection in a cat. The successful surgical and antimycobacterial treatment regimen is described.