The plant vacuole is a cellular compartment that is essential to plant development and growth. Often plant vacuoles accumulate specialized metabolites, also called secondary metabolites, which constitute functionally and chemically diverse compounds that exert in planta many essential functions and improve the plant’s fitness. These metabolites provide, for example, chemical defense against herbivorous and pathogens or chemical attractants (color and fragrance) to attract pollinators. The chemical composition of the vacuole is dynamic, and is altered during development and as a response to environmental changes. To some extent these alterations rely on vacuolar transporters, which import and export compounds into and out of the vacuole, respectively. During the past decade, significant progress was made in the identification and functional characterization of the transporters implicated in many aspects of plant specialized metabolism. Still, deciphering the molecular players underlying such processes remains a challenge for the future. In this review, we present a comprehensive summary of the most recent achievements in this field.