Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

UV bullseye contrast of Hemerocallis flowers attracts hawkmoths but not swallowtail butterflies


Hirota, Shun K; Miki, Nozomu; Yasumoto, Akiko A; Yahara, Tetsukazu (2019). UV bullseye contrast of Hemerocallis flowers attracts hawkmoths but not swallowtail butterflies. Ecology and Evolution, 9(1):52-64.

Abstract

The color and patterns of animal‐pollinated flowers are known to have effects on pol‐linator attraction. In this study, the relative importance of flower color and color con‐trast patterns on pollinator attraction was examined in two pollinator groups, swallowtail butterflies and hawkmoths using two Hemerocallis species; butterfly‐pol‐linated H. fulva and hawkmoth‐pollinated H. citrina, having reddish and yellowish flow‐ers in human vision, respectively. Flowers of both species have UV bullseye patterns, composed of UV‐absorbing centers and UV‐reflecting peripheries, known to function as a typical nectar guide, but UV reflectance was significantly more intense in the peripheries of H. citrina flowers than in those of H. fulva flowers. Comparison based on the visual systems of butterflies and hawkmoths showed that the color contrast of the bullseye pattern in H. citrina was more intense than that in H. fulva. To evaluate the relative importance of flower color and the color contrast of bullseye pattern on pol‐linator attraction, we performed a series of observations using experimental arrays consisting of Hemerocallis species and their hybrids. As a result, swallowtail butterflies and crepuscular/nocturnal hawkmoths showed contrasting preferences for flower color and patterns: butterflies preferred H. fulva‐like colored flower whereas the pref‐erence of hawkmoths was affected by the color contrast of the bullseye pattern rather than flower color. Both crepuscular and nocturnal hawkmoths consistently preferred flowers with stronger contrast of the UV bullseye pattern, whereas the preference of hawkmoths for flower color was incoherent. Our finding suggests that hawkmoths can use UV‐absorbing/reflecting bullseye patterns for foraging under light‐limited en‐vironments and that the intensified bullseye contrast of H. citrina evolved as an adap‐tation to hawkmoths. Our results also showed the difference of visual systems between pollinators, which may have promoted floral divergence.

Abstract

The color and patterns of animal‐pollinated flowers are known to have effects on pol‐linator attraction. In this study, the relative importance of flower color and color con‐trast patterns on pollinator attraction was examined in two pollinator groups, swallowtail butterflies and hawkmoths using two Hemerocallis species; butterfly‐pol‐linated H. fulva and hawkmoth‐pollinated H. citrina, having reddish and yellowish flow‐ers in human vision, respectively. Flowers of both species have UV bullseye patterns, composed of UV‐absorbing centers and UV‐reflecting peripheries, known to function as a typical nectar guide, but UV reflectance was significantly more intense in the peripheries of H. citrina flowers than in those of H. fulva flowers. Comparison based on the visual systems of butterflies and hawkmoths showed that the color contrast of the bullseye pattern in H. citrina was more intense than that in H. fulva. To evaluate the relative importance of flower color and the color contrast of bullseye pattern on pol‐linator attraction, we performed a series of observations using experimental arrays consisting of Hemerocallis species and their hybrids. As a result, swallowtail butterflies and crepuscular/nocturnal hawkmoths showed contrasting preferences for flower color and patterns: butterflies preferred H. fulva‐like colored flower whereas the pref‐erence of hawkmoths was affected by the color contrast of the bullseye pattern rather than flower color. Both crepuscular and nocturnal hawkmoths consistently preferred flowers with stronger contrast of the UV bullseye pattern, whereas the preference of hawkmoths for flower color was incoherent. Our finding suggests that hawkmoths can use UV‐absorbing/reflecting bullseye patterns for foraging under light‐limited en‐vironments and that the intensified bullseye contrast of H. citrina evolved as an adap‐tation to hawkmoths. Our results also showed the difference of visual systems between pollinators, which may have promoted floral divergence.

Statistics

Citations

Altmetrics

Downloads

22 downloads since deposited on 15 Mar 2019
22 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
590 Animals (Zoology)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Ecology, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, Nature and Landscape Conservation
Language:English
Date:1 January 2019
Deposited On:15 Mar 2019 13:03
Last Modified:15 Mar 2019 13:04
Publisher:Wiley Open Access
ISSN:2045-7758
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4604
Project Information:
  • : FunderFP7
  • : Grant ID223799
  • : Project TitleGST - Global Seismic Tomography

Download

Download PDF  'UV bullseye contrast of Hemerocallis flowers attracts hawkmoths but not swallowtail butterflies'.
Preview
Content: Published Version
Filetype: PDF
Size: 957kB
View at publisher
Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)