The causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila, replicates in free-living amoebae as well as in macrophages of the innate immune system within a distinct membrane-bound compartment, the "Legionella-containing-vacuole" (LCV). LCV formation is a complex process and requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system, which translocates approximately 300 different "effector" proteins. Intact LCVs from infected Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae or RAW 264.7 murine macrophages can be purified using a straightforward protocol. In the first step, the LCVs in cell homogenates are tagged with an antibody directed against an L. pneumophila effector protein specifically localizing to the pathogen vacuole membrane and isolated by immunomagnetic separation using a secondary antibody coupled to magnetic beads. In the second step, the LCVs are further enriched by density gradient centrifugation through a Histodenz cushion. LCVs thus purified are analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomics and characterized by biochemical and cell biological approaches.