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Discovery and Characterization of Mycobacterium basiliense sp. nov., a Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Isolated From Human Lungs


Abstract

Bacteria belonging to the genus are predominantly responsible for pulmonary diseases; most notably causes granulomatous pulmonary infections. Here we describe a novel slow growing mycobacterial species isolated from respiratory samples from five patients, four with underlying pulmonary disease. The isolates were characterized by biochemical and molecular techniques, including whole genome sequencing. Biochemical characteristics generally match those of and ; however, the most striking difference of the new species is its ability to grow at 37°C. The new species was found to grow in human macrophages, but not amoebae, suggesting a pathogenic rather than an environmental lifestyle. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a deep-rooting relationship to and . A complete genome sequence was obtained through combining short and long-read sequencing, providing a genome of 5.6 Mb. The genome appears to be highly intact, syntenic with that of , with very few insertion sequences. A vast array of virulence factors includes 283 PE/PPE surface-associated proteins, making up 10% of the coding capacity, and 22 non-ribosomal peptide synthase clusters. A comparison of six clinical isolates from the five patients shows that they differ by up to two single nucleotide polymorphisms, suggesting a common source of infection. Our findings are in accordance with the recognition of a new taxonomic entity. We propose the name , as all isolates were found in patients from the Basel area of Switzerland.

Abstract

Bacteria belonging to the genus are predominantly responsible for pulmonary diseases; most notably causes granulomatous pulmonary infections. Here we describe a novel slow growing mycobacterial species isolated from respiratory samples from five patients, four with underlying pulmonary disease. The isolates were characterized by biochemical and molecular techniques, including whole genome sequencing. Biochemical characteristics generally match those of and ; however, the most striking difference of the new species is its ability to grow at 37°C. The new species was found to grow in human macrophages, but not amoebae, suggesting a pathogenic rather than an environmental lifestyle. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a deep-rooting relationship to and . A complete genome sequence was obtained through combining short and long-read sequencing, providing a genome of 5.6 Mb. The genome appears to be highly intact, syntenic with that of , with very few insertion sequences. A vast array of virulence factors includes 283 PE/PPE surface-associated proteins, making up 10% of the coding capacity, and 22 non-ribosomal peptide synthase clusters. A comparison of six clinical isolates from the five patients shows that they differ by up to two single nucleotide polymorphisms, suggesting a common source of infection. Our findings are in accordance with the recognition of a new taxonomic entity. We propose the name , as all isolates were found in patients from the Basel area of Switzerland.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Microbiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2018
Deposited On:08 Mar 2019 10:53
Last Modified:01 Apr 2019 11:05
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN:1664-302X
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03184
PubMed ID:30671031

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