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Exploring variation in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake in Switzerland: a multilevel spatial analysis of a national vaccination coverage survey


Riesen, Maurane; Konstantinoudis, Garyfallos; Lang, Phung; Low, Nicola; Hatz, Christoph; Maeusezahl, Mirjam; Spaar, Anne; Bühlmann, Marc; Spycher, Ben D; Althaus, Christian L (2018). Exploring variation in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake in Switzerland: a multilevel spatial analysis of a national vaccination coverage survey. BMJ Open, 8(5):e021006.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE
Understanding the factors that influence human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake is critically important to the design of effective vaccination programmes. In Switzerland, HPV vaccination uptake (≥1 dose) by age 16 years among women ranges from 31% to 80% across 26 cantons (states). Our objective was to identify factors that are associated with the spatial variation in HPV vaccination uptake.
METHODS
We used cross-sectional data from the Swiss National Vaccination Coverage Survey 2009-2016 on HPV vaccination status (≥1 dose) of 14-17-year-old girls, their municipality of residence and their nationality for 21 of 26 cantons (n=8965). We examined covariates at municipality level: language, degree of urbanisation, socioeconomic position, religious denomination, results of a vote about vaccination laws as a proxy for vaccine scepticism and, at cantonal level, availability of school-based vaccination and survey period. We used a series of conditional autoregressive models to assess the effects of covariates while accounting for variability between cantons and municipal-level spatial autocorrelation.
RESULTS
In the best-fit model, living in cantons that have school-based vaccination (adjusted OR 2.51; 95% credible interval 1.77 to 3.56) was associated with increased uptake, while living in municipalities with lower acceptance of vaccination laws was associated with lower HPV vaccination uptake (OR 0.61; 95% credible interval 0.50 to 0.73). Overall, the covariates explained 88% of the municipal-level variation in uptake.
CONCLUSIONS
In Switzerland, both cantons and community opinion about vaccination play a prominent role in the variation in HPV vaccination uptake. To increase uptake, efforts should be made to mitigate vaccination scepticism and to encourage school-based vaccination.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE
Understanding the factors that influence human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake is critically important to the design of effective vaccination programmes. In Switzerland, HPV vaccination uptake (≥1 dose) by age 16 years among women ranges from 31% to 80% across 26 cantons (states). Our objective was to identify factors that are associated with the spatial variation in HPV vaccination uptake.
METHODS
We used cross-sectional data from the Swiss National Vaccination Coverage Survey 2009-2016 on HPV vaccination status (≥1 dose) of 14-17-year-old girls, their municipality of residence and their nationality for 21 of 26 cantons (n=8965). We examined covariates at municipality level: language, degree of urbanisation, socioeconomic position, religious denomination, results of a vote about vaccination laws as a proxy for vaccine scepticism and, at cantonal level, availability of school-based vaccination and survey period. We used a series of conditional autoregressive models to assess the effects of covariates while accounting for variability between cantons and municipal-level spatial autocorrelation.
RESULTS
In the best-fit model, living in cantons that have school-based vaccination (adjusted OR 2.51; 95% credible interval 1.77 to 3.56) was associated with increased uptake, while living in municipalities with lower acceptance of vaccination laws was associated with lower HPV vaccination uptake (OR 0.61; 95% credible interval 0.50 to 0.73). Overall, the covariates explained 88% of the municipal-level variation in uptake.
CONCLUSIONS
In Switzerland, both cantons and community opinion about vaccination play a prominent role in the variation in HPV vaccination uptake. To increase uptake, efforts should be made to mitigate vaccination scepticism and to encourage school-based vaccination.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:17 May 2018
Deposited On:08 Mar 2019 11:53
Last Modified:25 Sep 2019 00:27
Publisher:BMJ Publishing Group
ISSN:2044-6055
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-021006
Official URL:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5961588/pdf/bmjopen-2017-021006.pdf
PubMed ID:29773702

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