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Synthesis and selected transformations of 2-unsubstituted 1-(adamantyloxy)imidazole 3-oxides: straightforward access to non-symmetric 1,3-dialkoxyimidazolium salts


Mloston, Grzegorz; Celeda, Malgorzata; Urbaniak, Katarzyna; Jasinski, Marcin; Bakhonsky, Vladyslav; Schreiner, Peter R.; Heimgartner, Heinz (2019). Synthesis and selected transformations of 2-unsubstituted 1-(adamantyloxy)imidazole 3-oxides: straightforward access to non-symmetric 1,3-dialkoxyimidazolium salts. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, 15:497-505.

Abstract

Adamantyloxyamine reacts with formaldehyde to give N-(adamantyloxy)formaldimine as a room-temperature-stable compound that exists in solution in monomeric form. This product was used for reactions with α-hydroxyiminoketones leading to a new class of 2-unsubstituted imidazole 3-oxides bearing the adamantyloxy substituent at N(1). Their reactions with 2,2,4,4-tetramethylcyclobutane-1,3-dithione or with acetic acid anhydride occurred analogously to those of 1-alkylimidazole 3-oxides to give imidazol-2-thiones and imidazol-2-ones, respectively. Treatment of 1-(adamantyloxy)imidazole 3-oxides with Raney-Ni afforded the corresponding imidazole derivatives without cleavage of the N(1)–O bond. Finally, the O-alkylation reactions of the new imidazole N-oxides with 1-bromopentane or 1-bromododecane open access to diversely substituted, non-symmetric 1,3-dialkoxyimidazolium salts. Adamantyloxyamine reacts with glyoxal and formaldehyde in the presence of hydrobromic acid yielding symmetric 1,3-di(adamantyloxy)-1H-imidazolium bromide in good yield. Deprotonation of the latter with triethylamine in the presence of elemental sulfur allows the in situ generation of the corresponding imidazol-2-ylidene, which traps elemental sulfur yielding a 1,3- dihydro-2H-imidazole-2-thione as the final product.

Abstract

Adamantyloxyamine reacts with formaldehyde to give N-(adamantyloxy)formaldimine as a room-temperature-stable compound that exists in solution in monomeric form. This product was used for reactions with α-hydroxyiminoketones leading to a new class of 2-unsubstituted imidazole 3-oxides bearing the adamantyloxy substituent at N(1). Their reactions with 2,2,4,4-tetramethylcyclobutane-1,3-dithione or with acetic acid anhydride occurred analogously to those of 1-alkylimidazole 3-oxides to give imidazol-2-thiones and imidazol-2-ones, respectively. Treatment of 1-(adamantyloxy)imidazole 3-oxides with Raney-Ni afforded the corresponding imidazole derivatives without cleavage of the N(1)–O bond. Finally, the O-alkylation reactions of the new imidazole N-oxides with 1-bromopentane or 1-bromododecane open access to diversely substituted, non-symmetric 1,3-dialkoxyimidazolium salts. Adamantyloxyamine reacts with glyoxal and formaldehyde in the presence of hydrobromic acid yielding symmetric 1,3-di(adamantyloxy)-1H-imidazolium bromide in good yield. Deprotonation of the latter with triethylamine in the presence of elemental sulfur allows the in situ generation of the corresponding imidazol-2-ylidene, which traps elemental sulfur yielding a 1,3- dihydro-2H-imidazole-2-thione as the final product.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Language:English
Date:19 February 2019
Deposited On:15 Mar 2019 14:36
Last Modified:15 Mar 2019 14:37
Publisher:Beilstein-Institut
ISSN:1860-5397
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3762/bjoc.15.43

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