Sensory stimulation evokes intracellular calcium signals in astrocytes; however, the timing of these signals is disputed. Here, we used novel combinations of genetically encoded calcium indicators for concurrent two-photon imaging of cortical astrocytes and neurons in awake mice during whisker deflection. We identified calcium responses in both astrocyte processes and endfeet that rapidly followed neuronal events (∼120 ms after). These fast astrocyte responses were largely independent of IP3R2-mediated signaling and known neuromodulator activity (acetylcholine, serotonin, and norepinephrine), suggesting that they are evoked by local synaptic activity. The existence of such rapid signals implies that astrocytes are fast enough to play a role in synaptic modulation and neurovascular coupling.