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Intravitreal AAV-Delivery of Genetically Encoded Sensors Enabling Simultaneous Two-Photon Imaging and Electrophysiology of Optic Nerve Axons


Looser, Zoe J; Barrett, Matthew J P; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Weber, Bruno; Saab, Aiman S (2018). Intravitreal AAV-Delivery of Genetically Encoded Sensors Enabling Simultaneous Two-Photon Imaging and Electrophysiology of Optic Nerve Axons. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 12:2018.00377.

Abstract

Myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes is a key feature of the remarkably fast operating CNS. Oligodendrocytes not only tune axonal conduction speed but are also suggested to maintain long-term axonal integrity by providing metabolic support to the axons they ensheath. However, how myelinating oligodendrocytes impact axonal energy homeostasis remains poorly understood and difficult to investigate. Here, we provide a method of how to study electrically active myelinated axons expressing genetically encoded sensors by combining electrophysiology and two-photon imaging of acutely isolated optic nerves. We show that intravitreal adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector delivery is an efficient tool to achieve functional sensor expression in optic nerve axons, which is demonstrated by measuring axonal ATP dynamics following AAV-mediated sensor expression. This novel approach allows for fast expression of any optical sensor of interest to be studied in optic nerve axons without the need to go through the laborious process of producing new transgenic mouse lines. Viral-mediated biosensor expression in myelinated axons and the subsequent combination of nerve recordings and sensor imaging outlines a powerful method to investigate oligodendroglial support functions and to further interrogate cellular mechanisms governing axonal energy homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions.

Abstract

Myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes is a key feature of the remarkably fast operating CNS. Oligodendrocytes not only tune axonal conduction speed but are also suggested to maintain long-term axonal integrity by providing metabolic support to the axons they ensheath. However, how myelinating oligodendrocytes impact axonal energy homeostasis remains poorly understood and difficult to investigate. Here, we provide a method of how to study electrically active myelinated axons expressing genetically encoded sensors by combining electrophysiology and two-photon imaging of acutely isolated optic nerves. We show that intravitreal adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector delivery is an efficient tool to achieve functional sensor expression in optic nerve axons, which is demonstrated by measuring axonal ATP dynamics following AAV-mediated sensor expression. This novel approach allows for fast expression of any optical sensor of interest to be studied in optic nerve axons without the need to go through the laborious process of producing new transgenic mouse lines. Viral-mediated biosensor expression in myelinated axons and the subsequent combination of nerve recordings and sensor imaging outlines a powerful method to investigate oligodendroglial support functions and to further interrogate cellular mechanisms governing axonal energy homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Language:English
Date:23 October 2018
Deposited On:08 Mar 2019 16:18
Last Modified:08 Mar 2019 16:18
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN:1662-5102
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2018.00377
PubMed ID:30405358

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