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Multitechnique characterization of conventional and experimental Ag-based brazing alloys for orthodontic applications


Ntasi, Argyro; Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Silikas, Nick; Eliades, Theodore; Zinelis, Spiros (2018). Multitechnique characterization of conventional and experimental Ag-based brazing alloys for orthodontic applications. Dental Materials, 34(3):e25-e35.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES
To characterize the microstructure, mechanical properties, ionic release and tarnish resistance of conventional and experimental Ag-based soldering alloys for orthodontic applications.

METHODS
Disk shaped specimens were prepared from four commercial Ag based soldering alloys [Dentaurum Universal Silver Solder (DEN), Orthodontic Solders (LEO), Ortho Dental Universal Solder (NOB), and Silver Solder (ORT)] and four experimental alloys Ag12Ga, Ag10Ga5Sn, Ag20In and Ag7Sn. The elemental composition and microstructure was determined by SEM/EDX and XRD analysis, while the mechanical properties were determined by Instrumented Indentation Testing. Ionic release of Ag, Cu, Zn, Ga, In and Sn was determined by ICP-EAS in 0.9% NaCl and Ringer's solutions after 28, 49 and 70 days. Tarnish resistance was also tested and colorimetry was applied to quantify the differences in color (DE) before and after immersion in testing media. DSC was used to determine the melting range of the experimental alloys. Mechanical properties, ionic release and DE were statistically compared by ANOVA and Holm-Sidak multiple comparison test (a=0.05).

RESULTS
All commercially alloys belong to the Ag-Zn-Cu ternary system and consist a Ag rich face centered cubic (FCC) and Cu (FCC) phase. The former is the predominant phase also in experimental alloys. Conventional alloys demonstrated higherhardness, less ductility and lower melting rangers compared to experimental alloys. Immersion testing revealed the release of Cu and Zn ions from the commercially alloys and Ga ions from AgGa and AgGaSn while no ionic release was identified for AgIn and AgSn. All alloys failed tarnish testing according to ISO 10271 showing DE values much higher than the clinical acceptable limit (3.7).

SIGNIFICANCE
The conventional Ag based soldering alloys showed substantial differences in their microstructure, mechanical properties and ionic release, and thus different clinical performance is anticipated. Ga, Sn and In might be employed as alloying addition to modify the properties of Ag brazing alloys.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES
To characterize the microstructure, mechanical properties, ionic release and tarnish resistance of conventional and experimental Ag-based soldering alloys for orthodontic applications.

METHODS
Disk shaped specimens were prepared from four commercial Ag based soldering alloys [Dentaurum Universal Silver Solder (DEN), Orthodontic Solders (LEO), Ortho Dental Universal Solder (NOB), and Silver Solder (ORT)] and four experimental alloys Ag12Ga, Ag10Ga5Sn, Ag20In and Ag7Sn. The elemental composition and microstructure was determined by SEM/EDX and XRD analysis, while the mechanical properties were determined by Instrumented Indentation Testing. Ionic release of Ag, Cu, Zn, Ga, In and Sn was determined by ICP-EAS in 0.9% NaCl and Ringer's solutions after 28, 49 and 70 days. Tarnish resistance was also tested and colorimetry was applied to quantify the differences in color (DE) before and after immersion in testing media. DSC was used to determine the melting range of the experimental alloys. Mechanical properties, ionic release and DE were statistically compared by ANOVA and Holm-Sidak multiple comparison test (a=0.05).

RESULTS
All commercially alloys belong to the Ag-Zn-Cu ternary system and consist a Ag rich face centered cubic (FCC) and Cu (FCC) phase. The former is the predominant phase also in experimental alloys. Conventional alloys demonstrated higherhardness, less ductility and lower melting rangers compared to experimental alloys. Immersion testing revealed the release of Cu and Zn ions from the commercially alloys and Ga ions from AgGa and AgGaSn while no ionic release was identified for AgIn and AgSn. All alloys failed tarnish testing according to ISO 10271 showing DE values much higher than the clinical acceptable limit (3.7).

SIGNIFICANCE
The conventional Ag based soldering alloys showed substantial differences in their microstructure, mechanical properties and ionic release, and thus different clinical performance is anticipated. Ga, Sn and In might be employed as alloying addition to modify the properties of Ag brazing alloys.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic for Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:March 2018
Deposited On:12 Mar 2019 13:48
Last Modified:12 Mar 2019 13:49
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0109-5641
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2018.01.003
PubMed ID:29395471

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