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Atrial fibrillation in the cardiometabolic patient


De Sensi, Francesco; Costantino, Sarah; Limbruno, Ugo; Paneni, Francesco (2019). Atrial fibrillation in the cardiometabolic patient. Minerva Medica, 110(2):157-167.

Abstract

Prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is growing alarmingly, and the number of affected people continues to escalate. Such cardiometabolic states exert many deleterious effects on the heart as they are associated with adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling and, most notably, with a marked increase in the risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF) and subsequent stroke. Epidemiological studies clearly show a strong association between obesity and AF, with a 4-5% increase in AF risk for every unit increase in BMI. The increased risk of developing AF in cardiometabolic patients is explained by changes in volume status, energy substrate utilization, tissue metabolism and systemic inflammation, all factors promoting elevation in left atrial and systolic blood pressure, LV systo-diastolic dysfunction, with subsequent atrial stretch and "triggers" for AF. In the present review, we critically discuss available evidence on AF risk in the cardiometabolic patient. Specific aspects will be discussed: 1) epidemiology and prognosis of AF in patients with obesity, MetS and T2D; 2) molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic cardiomyopathy and left atrial remodeling; 3) advances in medical therapy including weight loss strategies and lifestyle changes; 4) new oral anticoagulants and stroke risk in obese and diabetic patients; 5) effectiveness and safety of AF catheter ablation. Taken together, these novel insights point to the development of new therapeutic strategies to combat the burden of AF in patients with cardiometabolic disturbances.

Abstract

Prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is growing alarmingly, and the number of affected people continues to escalate. Such cardiometabolic states exert many deleterious effects on the heart as they are associated with adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling and, most notably, with a marked increase in the risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF) and subsequent stroke. Epidemiological studies clearly show a strong association between obesity and AF, with a 4-5% increase in AF risk for every unit increase in BMI. The increased risk of developing AF in cardiometabolic patients is explained by changes in volume status, energy substrate utilization, tissue metabolism and systemic inflammation, all factors promoting elevation in left atrial and systolic blood pressure, LV systo-diastolic dysfunction, with subsequent atrial stretch and "triggers" for AF. In the present review, we critically discuss available evidence on AF risk in the cardiometabolic patient. Specific aspects will be discussed: 1) epidemiology and prognosis of AF in patients with obesity, MetS and T2D; 2) molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic cardiomyopathy and left atrial remodeling; 3) advances in medical therapy including weight loss strategies and lifestyle changes; 4) new oral anticoagulants and stroke risk in obese and diabetic patients; 5) effectiveness and safety of AF catheter ablation. Taken together, these novel insights point to the development of new therapeutic strategies to combat the burden of AF in patients with cardiometabolic disturbances.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Molecular Cardiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Medicine
Language:English
Date:April 2019
Deposited On:21 Jan 2020 12:55
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 10:26
Publisher:Edizioni Minerva Medica
ISSN:0026-4806
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.18.05882-2
PubMed ID:30371045

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