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Ethanol and its Halal status in food industries


Alzeer, Jawad; Abou Hadeed, Khaled (2016). Ethanol and its Halal status in food industries. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 58:14-20.

Abstract

Background
Ethanol is an important organic solvent and substrate which extensively used in research and industries. It is the main ingredient produced during fermentation of carbohydrates derived from fruits and other biomass substances. Halal status of ethanol is controversial and it is rational use is ambiguous.
Scope and Approach
In this review, the issue of ethanol in food industries is addressed. Ethanol is a sensitive, controversial and main issue in the production of Halal (Permitted, Allowed) products. Setting the limit of ethanol in Halal food industries is needed to facilitate food production and complied with certain religious demands. This review gives an overview of ethanol, types, application, advantages, and disadvantages. An attempt to set a limit of ethanol in food industries, supported by scientific facts and Islamic rules, is described.
Key Findings and Conclusion
Halal status of ethanol is highly controversial but rarely classified based on its source and concentration. Any ethanol produced by anaerobic fermentation and ranging between 1 and 15% is considered to be Haram (non-Halal, Forbidden), whereas ethanol produced by natural fermentation and less than 1% is considered as preserving agent and its Halal status is allowed. Any ethanolic solution higher than 15% is treated as a toxic solution but still could be used in industries, meanwhile, an ethanolic solution prepared by dilution from absolute or denatured ethanol is allowed for industrial used but toxic for human consumption. However, any concentration varied from 0.1 to 100% prepared with the intention to be used as a beverage drink is consider non-Halal.

Abstract

Background
Ethanol is an important organic solvent and substrate which extensively used in research and industries. It is the main ingredient produced during fermentation of carbohydrates derived from fruits and other biomass substances. Halal status of ethanol is controversial and it is rational use is ambiguous.
Scope and Approach
In this review, the issue of ethanol in food industries is addressed. Ethanol is a sensitive, controversial and main issue in the production of Halal (Permitted, Allowed) products. Setting the limit of ethanol in Halal food industries is needed to facilitate food production and complied with certain religious demands. This review gives an overview of ethanol, types, application, advantages, and disadvantages. An attempt to set a limit of ethanol in food industries, supported by scientific facts and Islamic rules, is described.
Key Findings and Conclusion
Halal status of ethanol is highly controversial but rarely classified based on its source and concentration. Any ethanol produced by anaerobic fermentation and ranging between 1 and 15% is considered to be Haram (non-Halal, Forbidden), whereas ethanol produced by natural fermentation and less than 1% is considered as preserving agent and its Halal status is allowed. Any ethanolic solution higher than 15% is treated as a toxic solution but still could be used in industries, meanwhile, an ethanolic solution prepared by dilution from absolute or denatured ethanol is allowed for industrial used but toxic for human consumption. However, any concentration varied from 0.1 to 100% prepared with the intention to be used as a beverage drink is consider non-Halal.

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24 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Biotechnology
Life Sciences > Food Science
Language:English
Date:1 December 2016
Deposited On:21 Mar 2019 15:44
Last Modified:31 Jul 2020 03:17
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0924-2244
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2016.10.018

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