Paleoradiology is the application of standard medical imaging techniques such as conventional X‐ray imaging, X‐ray computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for bioarcheological investigations. This discipline arose in parallel with the development of radiology and medical imaging technology, although it requires a distinctive methodology and a good understanding of the characteristics of bioarcheological materials and possible taphonomic and postmortem changes. Conventional X‐ray is still the primary modality used for paleoradiological imaging, since it is relatively simple to use, offers an excellent spatial resolution, and portable equipment is available for examinations at excavation sites or in museums. While many pathologies share common, nonspecific radiological characteristics, pathognomonic patterns (which allow the diagnosis of a specific condition to the exclusion of all others) are rather rare. Therefore, a differential diagnosis must be established with great care. As an experimental discipline, paleoradiology will always benefit from close interdisciplinary collaboration between scientists from different disciplines.