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Neurophysiology


Brandeis, Daniel; Loo, Sandra K; McLoughlin, Grainne; Heinrich, Hartmut; Banaschewski, Tobias (2018). Neurophysiology. In: Banaschewski, T; Coghill, D; Zuddas, A. Oxford Textbook of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 82-93.

Abstract

Neurophysiology allows us to understand and modulate the neural mechanisms in ADHD with high time- and/or frequency-resolution. These non-invasive methods include electroencephalographic recordings at rest and during tasks, with spontaneous and event-related oscillations and potentials tracking covert processing and transcranial neuromodulation through magnetic or electric fields. The findings indicate consistent cognitive and neural deficits in ADHD related to impaired attention and deficient inhibition. Advanced signal processing and source imaging methods often converge with other imaging approaches. Neurophysiological findings also reveal considerable heterogeneity in ADHD regarding cognitive, affective, and genetic subtypes. This illustrates the importance of dimensional approaches and of pathophysiological mechanisms partly shared with other disorders. Although several potential neurophysiological markers of ADHD have been considered, a clinical use for individual diagnostics and classification is not supported to date. More research should clarify the clinical potential of multivariate multimodal classification and prediction of treatment outcome to advance individualized treatment.

Abstract

Neurophysiology allows us to understand and modulate the neural mechanisms in ADHD with high time- and/or frequency-resolution. These non-invasive methods include electroencephalographic recordings at rest and during tasks, with spontaneous and event-related oscillations and potentials tracking covert processing and transcranial neuromodulation through magnetic or electric fields. The findings indicate consistent cognitive and neural deficits in ADHD related to impaired attention and deficient inhibition. Advanced signal processing and source imaging methods often converge with other imaging approaches. Neurophysiological findings also reveal considerable heterogeneity in ADHD regarding cognitive, affective, and genetic subtypes. This illustrates the importance of dimensional approaches and of pathophysiological mechanisms partly shared with other disorders. Although several potential neurophysiological markers of ADHD have been considered, a clinical use for individual diagnostics and classification is not supported to date. More research should clarify the clinical potential of multivariate multimodal classification and prediction of treatment outcome to advance individualized treatment.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Book Section, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 June 2018
Deposited On:22 Mar 2019 07:56
Last Modified:22 Mar 2019 07:56
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISBN:978 0 19 873925 8
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/med/9780198739258.003.0009

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