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Clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings in 87 cows with type-4 abomasal ulcer


Braun, Ueli; Reif, Christina; Nuss, Karl; Hilbe, Monika; Gerspach, Christian (2019). Clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings in 87 cows with type-4 abomasal ulcer. BMC Veterinary Research, 15(1):100.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic and pathological findings in 87 cows aged 2 to 10 years (4.5 ± 1.5 years) with type-4 abomasal ulcer.
RESULTS: The most common clinical findings were in decreasing order compromised health status accompanied by partial or complete anorexia (100%), abdominal guarding (81%), congested scleral vessels (77%), ruminal atony (73%), tachycardia (68%), tachypnoea (65%), positive foreign body tests (58%), decreased skin surface temperature (53%), fever (49%), reduction in negative intraabdominal pressure assessed transrectally (39%), poorly subdivided plant fragments in faeces (35%) and arched back (28%). The principal haematological abnormalities were hypokalaemia (72%), haemoconcentration (69%), azotaemia (56%), metabolic acidosis (49%), hyperfibrinogenaemia (45%), leukopenia (35%) and hypoproteinaemia (29%). Other abnormalities were aciduria (56%), haematuria (44%), increased chloride concentration in rumen fluid (34%) and abnormal peritoneal fluid (98%). Of 75 examined cows, 65 (87%) had ultrasonographic evidence of local or generalised peritonitis. On postmortem examination all cows had a type-4 abomasal ulcer and generalised peritonitis. In addition, 36 cows had type-1 ulcers, 6 had type-2 ulcers and one cow had a type-3 ulcer.
DISCUSSION: The clinical signs in cows with type-4 abomasal ulcer are associated with generalised peritonitis. An increased haematocrit, indicating shock-induced haemoconcentration is characteristic in contrast to cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Ultrasonography is useful for visualising and assessing generalised peritonitis.
CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of type-4 abomasal ulcer based on clinical signs alone is difficult and therefore requires additional diagnostic procedures including the determination of the haematocrit and plasma protein concentration, abdominal ultrasonography and analysis of peritoneal fluid. In most cases, these steps lead to a correct diagnosis and allow timely euthanasia of the cow to prevent further suffering and unnecessary treatment costs.
METHODS: The cows underwent a clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic and postmortem examination.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic and pathological findings in 87 cows aged 2 to 10 years (4.5 ± 1.5 years) with type-4 abomasal ulcer.
RESULTS: The most common clinical findings were in decreasing order compromised health status accompanied by partial or complete anorexia (100%), abdominal guarding (81%), congested scleral vessels (77%), ruminal atony (73%), tachycardia (68%), tachypnoea (65%), positive foreign body tests (58%), decreased skin surface temperature (53%), fever (49%), reduction in negative intraabdominal pressure assessed transrectally (39%), poorly subdivided plant fragments in faeces (35%) and arched back (28%). The principal haematological abnormalities were hypokalaemia (72%), haemoconcentration (69%), azotaemia (56%), metabolic acidosis (49%), hyperfibrinogenaemia (45%), leukopenia (35%) and hypoproteinaemia (29%). Other abnormalities were aciduria (56%), haematuria (44%), increased chloride concentration in rumen fluid (34%) and abnormal peritoneal fluid (98%). Of 75 examined cows, 65 (87%) had ultrasonographic evidence of local or generalised peritonitis. On postmortem examination all cows had a type-4 abomasal ulcer and generalised peritonitis. In addition, 36 cows had type-1 ulcers, 6 had type-2 ulcers and one cow had a type-3 ulcer.
DISCUSSION: The clinical signs in cows with type-4 abomasal ulcer are associated with generalised peritonitis. An increased haematocrit, indicating shock-induced haemoconcentration is characteristic in contrast to cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Ultrasonography is useful for visualising and assessing generalised peritonitis.
CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of type-4 abomasal ulcer based on clinical signs alone is difficult and therefore requires additional diagnostic procedures including the determination of the haematocrit and plasma protein concentration, abdominal ultrasonography and analysis of peritoneal fluid. In most cases, these steps lead to a correct diagnosis and allow timely euthanasia of the cow to prevent further suffering and unnecessary treatment costs.
METHODS: The cows underwent a clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic and postmortem examination.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Uncontrolled Keywords:Abomasum; Cattle; Perforated abomasal ulcer; Peritonitis; Type-4 ulcer
Language:English
Date:25 March 2019
Deposited On:28 Apr 2019 14:57
Last Modified:25 Sep 2019 00:31
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1746-6148
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1844-6
PubMed ID:30909917

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