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Outcome After Surgical Treatment of Calcaneal Osteomyelitis


Waibel, Felix W A; Klammer, Alexander; Götschi, Tobias; Uçkay, Ilker; Böni, Thomas; Berli, Martin C (2019). Outcome After Surgical Treatment of Calcaneal Osteomyelitis. Foot and Ankle International, 40(5):562-567.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Surgical procedures for calcaneal osteomyelitis are partial calcanectomy (PC), total calcanectomy (TC), and below-knee amputation (BKA). With calcaneal osteomyelitis, limb-saving surgery was described to have secondary BKA rates of 4% to 20%, while secondary amputation rates after BKA are unknown. The aim of this study was to describe and compare overall revision and secondary amputation rates for each surgical option in our institution's cohort and to identify risk factors for secondary amputation.
METHODS:
Fifty patients treated between 2002 and 2017 were included. Revisions, secondary amputations, and possible risk factors for secondary amputation and overall revision were statistically analyzed.
RESULTS:
Minor revisions rates were 57.1% in PCs, 100% in TCs, and 27.8% in BKAs. Secondary amputation was performed in 28.6% of the PCs, in 50% of the TCs, and in 5.6% of the BKAs. No statistically significant differences between overall revision and secondary amputation rates were found. C-reactive protein values greater than 5 mg/L at the index procedure were significantly associated with overall revision while we could not identify risk factors for secondary amputation.
CONCLUSION:
This study represents the largest group of patients treated for calcaneal osteomyelitis in the literature. In limb-preserving surgical options, secondary BKA rates are higher than previously known. Primary BKA is a procedure with a low reamputation rate of 5.6%. PC can be considered, with 28.6% needing more proximal amputation. In TC, all patients underwent revision surgery and 50% had to undergo secondary BKA. Therefore, we hesitate to consider total calcanectomy as a surgical option in calcaneal osteomyelitis anymore.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, case series.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Surgical procedures for calcaneal osteomyelitis are partial calcanectomy (PC), total calcanectomy (TC), and below-knee amputation (BKA). With calcaneal osteomyelitis, limb-saving surgery was described to have secondary BKA rates of 4% to 20%, while secondary amputation rates after BKA are unknown. The aim of this study was to describe and compare overall revision and secondary amputation rates for each surgical option in our institution's cohort and to identify risk factors for secondary amputation.
METHODS:
Fifty patients treated between 2002 and 2017 were included. Revisions, secondary amputations, and possible risk factors for secondary amputation and overall revision were statistically analyzed.
RESULTS:
Minor revisions rates were 57.1% in PCs, 100% in TCs, and 27.8% in BKAs. Secondary amputation was performed in 28.6% of the PCs, in 50% of the TCs, and in 5.6% of the BKAs. No statistically significant differences between overall revision and secondary amputation rates were found. C-reactive protein values greater than 5 mg/L at the index procedure were significantly associated with overall revision while we could not identify risk factors for secondary amputation.
CONCLUSION:
This study represents the largest group of patients treated for calcaneal osteomyelitis in the literature. In limb-preserving surgical options, secondary BKA rates are higher than previously known. Primary BKA is a procedure with a low reamputation rate of 5.6%. PC can be considered, with 28.6% needing more proximal amputation. In TC, all patients underwent revision surgery and 50% had to undergo secondary BKA. Therefore, we hesitate to consider total calcanectomy as a surgical option in calcaneal osteomyelitis anymore.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, case series.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Balgrist University Hospital, Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Surgery
Health Sciences > Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Language:English
Date:28 January 2019
Deposited On:12 Feb 2020 11:33
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 10:32
Publisher:Sage Publications Ltd.
ISSN:1071-1007
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1071100718822978
PubMed ID:30688528

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