Surgical procedures for calcaneal osteomyelitis are partial calcanectomy (PC), total calcanectomy (TC), and below-knee amputation (BKA). With calcaneal osteomyelitis, limb-saving surgery was described to have secondary BKA rates of 4% to 20%, while secondary amputation rates after BKA are unknown. The aim of this study was to describe and compare overall revision and secondary amputation rates for each surgical option in our institution's cohort and to identify risk factors for secondary amputation.
Fifty patients treated between 2002 and 2017 were included. Revisions, secondary amputations, and possible risk factors for secondary amputation and overall revision were statistically analyzed.
Minor revisions rates were 57.1% in PCs, 100% in TCs, and 27.8% in BKAs. Secondary amputation was performed in 28.6% of the PCs, in 50% of the TCs, and in 5.6% of the BKAs. No statistically significant differences between overall revision and secondary amputation rates were found. C-reactive protein values greater than 5 mg/L at the index procedure were significantly associated with overall revision while we could not identify risk factors for secondary amputation.
This study represents the largest group of patients treated for calcaneal osteomyelitis in the literature. In limb-preserving surgical options, secondary BKA rates are higher than previously known. Primary BKA is a procedure with a low reamputation rate of 5.6%. PC can be considered, with 28.6% needing more proximal amputation. In TC, all patients underwent revision surgery and 50% had to undergo secondary BKA. Therefore, we hesitate to consider total calcanectomy as a surgical option in calcaneal osteomyelitis anymore.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, case series.