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Association study and a systematic meta-analysis of the VNTR polymorphism in the 3'-UTR of dopamine transporter gene and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder


Grünblatt, Edna; Werling, Anna Maria; Roth, Alexander; Romanos, Marcel; Walitza, Susanne (2019). Association study and a systematic meta-analysis of the VNTR polymorphism in the 3'-UTR of dopamine transporter gene and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Neural Transmission, 126(4):517-529.

Abstract

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been postulated to associate with dopaminergic dysfunction, including the dopamine transporter (DAT1). Several meta-analyses showed small but significant association between the 10-repeat allele in the DAT1 gene in 3'-untranslated region variant number tandem repeat polymorphism and child and adolescent ADHD, whereas in adult ADHD the 9-repeat allele was suggested to confer as risk allele. Interestingly, recent evidence indicated that the long-allele variants (10 repeats and longer) might confer to lower expression of the transporter in comparison to the short-allele. Therefore, we assessed here the association in samples consisting of families with child and adolescent ADHD as well as a case-control sample, using either the 10- versus 9-repeat or the long- versus short-allele approach. Following, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, including family and case-control studies, using the two aforementioned approaches as well as stratifying to age and ethnicity. The first approach (10-repeat) resulted in nominal significant association in child and adolescent ADHD (OR 1.1050 p = 0.0128), that became significant stratifying to European population (OR 1.1301 p = 0.0085). The second approach (long-allele) resulted in significant association with the whole ADHD population (OR 1.1046 p = 0.0048), followed by significant association for child and adolescent ADHD (OR 1.1602 p = 0.0006) and in Caucasian and in European child and adolescent ADHD (OR 1.1310 p = 0.0114; OR 1.1661 p = 0.0061; respectively). We were not able to confirm the association reported in adults using both approaches. In conclusion, we found further indication for a possible DAT1 gene involvement; however, further studies should be conducted with stringent phenotyping to reduce heterogeneity, a limitation observed in most included studies.

Abstract

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been postulated to associate with dopaminergic dysfunction, including the dopamine transporter (DAT1). Several meta-analyses showed small but significant association between the 10-repeat allele in the DAT1 gene in 3'-untranslated region variant number tandem repeat polymorphism and child and adolescent ADHD, whereas in adult ADHD the 9-repeat allele was suggested to confer as risk allele. Interestingly, recent evidence indicated that the long-allele variants (10 repeats and longer) might confer to lower expression of the transporter in comparison to the short-allele. Therefore, we assessed here the association in samples consisting of families with child and adolescent ADHD as well as a case-control sample, using either the 10- versus 9-repeat or the long- versus short-allele approach. Following, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, including family and case-control studies, using the two aforementioned approaches as well as stratifying to age and ethnicity. The first approach (10-repeat) resulted in nominal significant association in child and adolescent ADHD (OR 1.1050 p = 0.0128), that became significant stratifying to European population (OR 1.1301 p = 0.0085). The second approach (long-allele) resulted in significant association with the whole ADHD population (OR 1.1046 p = 0.0048), followed by significant association for child and adolescent ADHD (OR 1.1602 p = 0.0006) and in Caucasian and in European child and adolescent ADHD (OR 1.1310 p = 0.0114; OR 1.1661 p = 0.0061; respectively). We were not able to confirm the association reported in adults using both approaches. In conclusion, we found further indication for a possible DAT1 gene involvement; however, further studies should be conducted with stringent phenotyping to reduce heterogeneity, a limitation observed in most included studies.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
04 Faculty of Medicine > Neuroscience Center Zurich
04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Neurology
Health Sciences > Neurology (clinical)
Health Sciences > Psychiatry and Mental Health
Life Sciences > Biological Psychiatry
Language:English
Date:1 April 2019
Deposited On:23 Apr 2019 13:04
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 10:38
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0300-9564
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00702-019-01998-x
PubMed ID:30923918

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