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Les effets sur la santé des produits laitiers et carnés: Que disent les donneés épidemiologiques?


Krieger, Jean-Philippe (2019). Les effets sur la santé des produits laitiers et carnés: Que disent les donneés épidemiologiques? Novanimal Working Paper 4, University of Zurich.

Abstract

Meat and dairy products are at the heart of Swiss food culture, and important sources of macronutrients and micronutrients. Some of their constituents, such as salt or saturated fats, may pose a risk to human health. Here we sought to summarize the epidemiological evidence that meat or dairy consumption are associated with human health and disease, and attempted to draw conclusions of these studies that apply to the Swiss context. For this, we used meta-analysis studies published after 2010 which reported the association between the consumption of meat or dairy products and a disease or mortality. Effects of specific subproducts (i. e., low-fat dairy, processed meat) and linearity of the epxosure-disease relationship are discussed when possible. A non-exhaustive list of potential mechanisms mediating the effects of meat and dairy on diseases is proposed. Finally, the levels of consumption associated with low risks in epidemiological studies are compared to the levels consumed and recommended in Switzerland. Despite the a priori unfavourable lipid profile of milk and dairy products, epidemiological data indicate a favourable overall effect of these products on metabolic risks and cancer risk (with the exception of pro- state cancer). Although below the recommendations, it seems that the consumption of dairy products in Switzerland corresponds to levels associated with low risks of chronic diseases. For meat products, epi- demiological data indicate that it is necessary to distinguish white meat from red meat and unprocessed meat from processed meat. It is mainly processed meat and, to a lesser extent, red meat, which appear to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Several possible mechanisms have been identified, but their respective importance remains to be determined. In the light of these results, it is worrying that the consumption of total meat, and processed meat in Switzerland, is much higher than recommended. Finally, in this synthesis, we have also highlighted the fact that, while the epidemiological data are the best we currently have, they do not indicate a cause-and-effect relationship under any circumstances, and should be interpreted with caution.

Abstract

Meat and dairy products are at the heart of Swiss food culture, and important sources of macronutrients and micronutrients. Some of their constituents, such as salt or saturated fats, may pose a risk to human health. Here we sought to summarize the epidemiological evidence that meat or dairy consumption are associated with human health and disease, and attempted to draw conclusions of these studies that apply to the Swiss context. For this, we used meta-analysis studies published after 2010 which reported the association between the consumption of meat or dairy products and a disease or mortality. Effects of specific subproducts (i. e., low-fat dairy, processed meat) and linearity of the epxosure-disease relationship are discussed when possible. A non-exhaustive list of potential mechanisms mediating the effects of meat and dairy on diseases is proposed. Finally, the levels of consumption associated with low risks in epidemiological studies are compared to the levels consumed and recommended in Switzerland. Despite the a priori unfavourable lipid profile of milk and dairy products, epidemiological data indicate a favourable overall effect of these products on metabolic risks and cancer risk (with the exception of pro- state cancer). Although below the recommendations, it seems that the consumption of dairy products in Switzerland corresponds to levels associated with low risks of chronic diseases. For meat products, epi- demiological data indicate that it is necessary to distinguish white meat from red meat and unprocessed meat from processed meat. It is mainly processed meat and, to a lesser extent, red meat, which appear to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Several possible mechanisms have been identified, but their respective importance remains to be determined. In the light of these results, it is worrying that the consumption of total meat, and processed meat in Switzerland, is much higher than recommended. Finally, in this synthesis, we have also highlighted the fact that, while the epidemiological data are the best we currently have, they do not indicate a cause-and-effect relationship under any circumstances, and should be interpreted with caution.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Working Paper
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:French
Date:May 2019
Deposited On:06 May 2019 14:25
Last Modified:17 Sep 2019 20:22
Series Name:Novanimal Working Paper
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-170599

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