The aim of this study was to evaluate selected parameters of strain and rotation of the left ventricle (the basal rotation (BR) index, the basal circumferential strain (BCS) index, and the global longitudinal strain (GLS) of the left ventricle) in male athletes with physiological cardiac hypertrophy (LVH group), and athletes (non-LVH group) and non-athletes without hypertrophy (control group, CG). They were evaluated using transthoracic echocardiography and speckle tracking echocardiography before and after an incremental exercise test. The LVH group demonstrated lower BR at rest than the non-LVH group ( < 0.05) and the CG ( < 0.05). Physical effort had no effect on BR, nor was this effect different between groups ( > 0.05). There was a combined influence of LVH and physical effort on BR (F = 5.70; < 0.05) and BCS (F = 4.97; < 0.05), but no significant differences in BCS and GLS at rest between the groups. A higher BCS and lower GLS after exercise in the LVH group were demonstrated in comparison with the CG ( < 0.05). Left ventricular basal rotation as well as longitudinal and circumferential strains showed less of a difference between rest and after physical effort in subjects with significant myocardial hypertrophy. In conclusion, the obtained results may suggest that echocardiographic assessment of basal rotation and circumferential strain of the left ventricular can be important in predicting cardiac disorders caused by physical effort in individuals with physiological and pathological heart hypertrophy.