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Widely Conserved Attenuation of Plant MAMP-Induced Calcium Influx by Bacteria Depends on Multiple Virulence Factors and May Involve Desensitization of Host Pattern Recognition Receptors


Lammertz, Meltem; Kuhn, Hannah; Pfeilmeier, Sebastian; Malone, Jacob; Zipfel, Cyril; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Lin, Nai-Chun; Kvitko, Brian H; Panstruga, Ralph (2019). Widely Conserved Attenuation of Plant MAMP-Induced Calcium Influx by Bacteria Depends on Multiple Virulence Factors and May Involve Desensitization of Host Pattern Recognition Receptors. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 32(5):608-621.

Abstract

Successful pathogens must efficiently defeat or delay host immune responses, including those triggered by release or exposure of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Knowledge of the molecular details leading to this phenomenon in genuine plant-pathogen interactions is still scarce. We took advantage of the well-established - pv. DC3000 pathosystem to explore the molecular prerequisites for the suppression of MAMP-triggered host defense by the bacterial invader. Using a transgenic line expressing the calcium sensor apoaequorin, we discovered that strain DC3000 colonization results in a complete inhibition of MAMP-induced cytosolic calcium influx, a key event of immediate-early host immune signaling. A range of further plant-associated bacterial species is also able to prevent, either partially or fully, the MAMP-triggered cytosolic calcium pattern. Genetic analysis revealed that this suppressive effect partially relies on the bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) but cannot be attributed to individual members of the currently known arsenal of strain DC3000 effector proteins. Although the phytotoxin coronatine and bacterial flagellin individually are dispensable for the effective inhibition of MAMP-induced calcium signatures, they contribute to the attenuation of calcium influx in the absence of the T3SS. Our findings suggest that the capacity to interfere with early plant immune responses is a widespread ability among plant-associated bacteria that, at least in strain DC3000, requires the combinatorial effect of multiple virulence determinants. This may also include the desensitization of host pattern recognition receptors by the prolonged exposure to MAMPs during bacterial pathogenesis.

Abstract

Successful pathogens must efficiently defeat or delay host immune responses, including those triggered by release or exposure of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Knowledge of the molecular details leading to this phenomenon in genuine plant-pathogen interactions is still scarce. We took advantage of the well-established - pv. DC3000 pathosystem to explore the molecular prerequisites for the suppression of MAMP-triggered host defense by the bacterial invader. Using a transgenic line expressing the calcium sensor apoaequorin, we discovered that strain DC3000 colonization results in a complete inhibition of MAMP-induced cytosolic calcium influx, a key event of immediate-early host immune signaling. A range of further plant-associated bacterial species is also able to prevent, either partially or fully, the MAMP-triggered cytosolic calcium pattern. Genetic analysis revealed that this suppressive effect partially relies on the bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) but cannot be attributed to individual members of the currently known arsenal of strain DC3000 effector proteins. Although the phytotoxin coronatine and bacterial flagellin individually are dispensable for the effective inhibition of MAMP-induced calcium signatures, they contribute to the attenuation of calcium influx in the absence of the T3SS. Our findings suggest that the capacity to interfere with early plant immune responses is a widespread ability among plant-associated bacteria that, at least in strain DC3000, requires the combinatorial effect of multiple virulence determinants. This may also include the desensitization of host pattern recognition receptors by the prolonged exposure to MAMPs during bacterial pathogenesis.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
07 Faculty of Science > Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Language:English
Date:May 2019
Deposited On:25 Jun 2019 12:16
Last Modified:25 Sep 2019 00:36
Publisher:American Phytopathological Society
ISSN:0894-0282
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-10-18-0291-R
PubMed ID:30664393

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