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Circulating, soluble forms of major histocompatibility complex antigens are not exosome-associated


MacKay, Philippa A; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé; Koch, Norbert; Dunn, Amy C; Reith, Walter; Jack, Ralph W; McLellan, Alexander D (2006). Circulating, soluble forms of major histocompatibility complex antigens are not exosome-associated. European Journal of Immunology, 36(11):2875-2884.

Abstract

In vitro studies have shown that soluble MHC (sMHC) released by cell lines is bound to nano-vesicles termed exosomes. It is thought that exosomes may represent the major reservoir of sMHC class I and II molecules in biological fluids. However, most studies have been confined to in vitro assays performed with cell lines. We show here that sMHC in the serum or plasma differs from exosome-bound sMHC in five ways: In contrast to exosome-associated sMHC, circulating sMHC is of low density, has a low apparent molecular mass (40-300 kDa) and is not detergent-labile. Moreover, the majority of MHC class II isoforms and MHC class I in blood are not physically linked and circulating HLA-DR is accessible to an antibody specific for the HLA-DR alpha-chain intracellular epitope, which is masked by its association with cellular or exosomal membranes. Finally, utilizing transcriptional activator of murine MHC class II (C2ta) promoter-mutant mice, we showed that the release of sMHC class II into the circulation is dependent on the C2ta pI promoter, but not pIII or pIV. This suggests that myeloid dendritic cells and/or macrophages, which preferentially use promoter pI of the C2ta gene, produce most of the sMHC class II found in the circulation.

Abstract

In vitro studies have shown that soluble MHC (sMHC) released by cell lines is bound to nano-vesicles termed exosomes. It is thought that exosomes may represent the major reservoir of sMHC class I and II molecules in biological fluids. However, most studies have been confined to in vitro assays performed with cell lines. We show here that sMHC in the serum or plasma differs from exosome-bound sMHC in five ways: In contrast to exosome-associated sMHC, circulating sMHC is of low density, has a low apparent molecular mass (40-300 kDa) and is not detergent-labile. Moreover, the majority of MHC class II isoforms and MHC class I in blood are not physically linked and circulating HLA-DR is accessible to an antibody specific for the HLA-DR alpha-chain intracellular epitope, which is masked by its association with cellular or exosomal membranes. Finally, utilizing transcriptional activator of murine MHC class II (C2ta) promoter-mutant mice, we showed that the release of sMHC class II into the circulation is dependent on the C2ta pI promoter, but not pIII or pIV. This suggests that myeloid dendritic cells and/or macrophages, which preferentially use promoter pI of the C2ta gene, produce most of the sMHC class II found in the circulation.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Virology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Life Sciences > Immunology
Language:English
Date:1 November 2006
Deposited On:04 Jul 2019 11:40
Last Modified:31 Jul 2020 03:27
Publisher:Wiley-VCH Verlag
ISSN:0014-2980
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/eji.200636041
PubMed ID:17072917

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