Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-mediated immunity has emerged as a crucial host defense mechanism against fungal infections. The family of IL-17 cytokines is phylogenetically ancient, but remains the least understood of all cytokine subclasses. The effects mediated by IL-17 are pleiotropic and include the induction of antimicrobial peptides as well as cytokines and chemokines that lead to the recruitment and activation of neutrophils. Neutrophils in turn are key effector cells of the antifungal defense. CD4+ T cells act as a major source of IL-17 and a lot has been learned about these cells since their discovery a decade ago. This review highlights key aspects of the underlying mechanisms regulating the development of Th17 responses during fungal infections. We discuss the impact of different subsets of antigen-presenting cells, innate cytokine signals and tissue-specific factors on Th17 differentiation, and we highlight the prerequisites for the mediation by Th17 cells of vaccine immunity against fungi.