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Infection History Determines Susceptibility to Unrelated Diseases


Rakebrandt, Nikolas; Joller, Nicole (2019). Infection History Determines Susceptibility to Unrelated Diseases. BioEssays, 41(6):e1800191.

Abstract

Epidemiological data suggest that previous infections can alter an individual's susceptibility to unrelated diseases. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Substantial research efforts have expanded the classical concept of immune memory to also include long‐lasting changes in innate immunity and antigen‐independent reactivation of adaptive immunity. Collectively, these processes provide possible explanations on how acute infections might induce long‐term changes that also affect immunity to unrelated diseases. Here, we review lasting changes the immune compartment undergoes upon infection and how infection experience alters the responsiveness of immune cells towards universal signals. This heightened state of alert enhances the ability of the immune system to combat even unrelated infections but may also increase susceptibility to autoimmunity. At the same time, infection‐induced changes in the regulatory compartment may dampen subsequent immune responses and promote pathogen persistence. The concepts presented here outline how infection‐induced changes in the immune system may affect human health.

Abstract

Epidemiological data suggest that previous infections can alter an individual's susceptibility to unrelated diseases. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Substantial research efforts have expanded the classical concept of immune memory to also include long‐lasting changes in innate immunity and antigen‐independent reactivation of adaptive immunity. Collectively, these processes provide possible explanations on how acute infections might induce long‐term changes that also affect immunity to unrelated diseases. Here, we review lasting changes the immune compartment undergoes upon infection and how infection experience alters the responsiveness of immune cells towards universal signals. This heightened state of alert enhances the ability of the immune system to combat even unrelated infections but may also increase susceptibility to autoimmunity. At the same time, infection‐induced changes in the regulatory compartment may dampen subsequent immune responses and promote pathogen persistence. The concepts presented here outline how infection‐induced changes in the immune system may affect human health.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Experimental Immunology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Infection history, immune regulation
Language:English
Date:1 June 2019
Deposited On:25 Jul 2019 12:16
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 10:58
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0265-9247
OA Status:Hybrid
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.201800191
PubMed ID:31132173
Project Information:
  • : FunderH2020
  • : Grant ID677200
  • : Project TitleImmune Regulation - How Infection History Shapes the Immune System: Pathogen-induced Changes in Regulatory T Cells
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant IDPP00P3_150663
  • : Project TitleImmune Regulation through Infection History
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant IDPP00P3_181037
  • : Project TitleImmune Regulation through Infection History

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