The prosomeric brain model contemplates progressive regionalization of the central nervous system (CNS) from a molecular and morphological ontogenetic perspective. It defines the forebrain axis relative to the notochord, and contemplates intersecting longitudinal (zonal, columnar) and transversal (neuromeric) patterning mechanisms. A checkboard pattern of histogenetic units of the neural wall results, where each unit is differentially fated by an unique profile of active genes. These natural neural units later expand their radial dimension during neurogenesis, histogenesis, and correlative differential morphogenesis. This fundamental topologic framework is shared by all vertebrates, as a Bauplan, each lineage varying in some subtle aspects. So far the prosomeric model has been applied only to neural structures, but we attempt here a prosomeric analysis of the hypothesis that major vessels invade the brain wall in patterns that are congruent with its intrinsic natural developmental units, as postulated in the prosomeric model. Anatomic and embryologic studies of brain blood vessels have classically recorded a conserved pattern of branches (thus the conventional terminology), and clinical experience has discovered a standard topography of many brain arterial terminal fields. Such results were described under assumptions of the columnar model of the forebrain, prevalent during the last century, but this is found insufficient in depth and explanatory power in the modern molecular scenario. We have thus explored the possibility that brain vascularization in rodents and humans may relate systematically to genoarchitectonic forebrain subdivisions contemplated in the prosomeric model. Specifically, we examined first whether early vascular invasion of some molecularly characterized prosomeric domains shows heterochrony. We indeed found a heterochronic pattern of vascular invasion that distinguishes between adjacent brain areas with differential molecular profiles. We next mapped topologically on the prosomeric model the major arterial branches serving the human brain. The results of this approach bear on the possibility of a developmentally-based modern arterial terminology.