Stroke patients have only limited therapeutic options and often remain with considerable disabilities. To promote neurological recovery, angiogenesis in the ischemic peri-infarct region has been recognized as an encouraging therapeutic target. Despite advances in mechanistic understanding of vascular growth and repair, effective and safe angiogenic treatments are currently missing. Besides the most intensively studied angiogenic growth factors, recent research has indicated that the process of vascular sprouting and migration also requires the participation of guidance molecules, many of which were initially identified as regulators of axonal growth. Here, we review the inhibitory and growth-promoting effects of guidance molecules on the vascular system and discuss their potential as novel angiogenic targets for neurovascular diseases.