Amylin acts in the area postrema (AP) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) to control food intake. Amylin also increases axonal fiber outgrowth from the AP→nucleus tractus solitarius and from ARC→hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. More recently, exogenous amylin infusion for 4 wk was shown to increase neurogenesis in adult rats in the AP. Furthermore, amylin has been shown to enhance leptin signaling in the ARC and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN). Thus, we hypothesized that endogenous amylin could be a critical factor in regulating cell birth in the ARC and AP and that amylin could also be involved in the birth of leptin-sensitive neurons. Amylin dams were injected with BrdU at and at ; BrdU+ cells were quantified in wild-type (WT) and amylin knockout (KO) mice. The number of BrdU+HuC/D+ neurons was similar in ARC and AP, but the number of BrdU+Iba1+ microglia was significantly decreased in both nuclei. Five-week-old WT and KO littermates were injected with leptin to test whether amylin is involved in the birth of leptin-sensitive neurons. Although there was no difference in the number of BrdU+c-Fos+ neurons in the ARC and dorsomedial nucleus, an increase in BrdU+c-Fos+ neurons was seen in VMN and lateral hypothalamus (LH) in amylin KO mice. In conclusion, these data suggest that during fetal development, endogenous amylin favors the birth of microglial cells in the ARC and AP and that it decreases the birth of leptin-sensitive neurons in the VMN and LH.