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Cognitive, behavioral and metabolic effects of oral galactose treatment in the transgenic Tg2576 mice


Babic Perhoc, Ana; Osmanovic Barilar, Jelena; Knezovic, Ana; Farkas, Vladimir; Bagaric, Robert; Svarc, Alfred; Grünblatt, Edna; Riederer, Peter; Salkovic-Petrisic, Melita (2019). Cognitive, behavioral and metabolic effects of oral galactose treatment in the transgenic Tg2576 mice. Neuropharmacology, 148:50-67.

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder associated with insulin resistance and glucose hypometabolism in the brain. Oral administration of galactose, a nutrient that provides an alternative source of energy, prevents and ameliorates early cognitive impairment in a streptozotocin-induced model (STZ-icv) of the sporadic AD (sAD). Here we explored the influence of 2-month oral galactose treatment (200 mg/kg/day) in the familial AD (fAD) by using 5- (5M) and 10- (10M) month-old transgenic Tg2576 mice mimicking the presymptomatic and the mild stage of fAD, and compared it to that observed in 7-month old STZ-icv rats mimicking mild-to-moderate sAD. Cognitive and behavioral performance was tested by Morris Water Maze, Open Field and Elevated Plus Maze tests, and metabolic status by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and fluorodeoxyglucose Positron-Emission Tomography scan. The level of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and soluble amyloid β1-42 (sAβ1-42) was measured by ELISA and the protein expression of insulin receptor (IR), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and pre-/post-synaptic markers by Western blot analysis. Although galactose normalized alterations in cerebral glucose metabolism in all Tg2576 mice (5M+2M; 10M+2M) and STZ-icv rats, it did not improve cognitive impairment in either model. Improvement of reduced grooming behavior and normalization in reduced plasma insulin levels were seen only in 5M+2M Tg2576 mice while in 10M+2M Tg2576 mice oral galactose induced metabolic exacerbation at the level of plasma insulin, GLP-1 homeostasis and glucose intolerance, and additionally increased hippocampal sAβ1-42 level, decreased IR expression and increased GSK-3β activity. The results indicate that therapeutic potential of oral galactose seems to depend on the stage and the type/model of AD and to differ in the absence and the presence of AD-like pathology.

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder associated with insulin resistance and glucose hypometabolism in the brain. Oral administration of galactose, a nutrient that provides an alternative source of energy, prevents and ameliorates early cognitive impairment in a streptozotocin-induced model (STZ-icv) of the sporadic AD (sAD). Here we explored the influence of 2-month oral galactose treatment (200 mg/kg/day) in the familial AD (fAD) by using 5- (5M) and 10- (10M) month-old transgenic Tg2576 mice mimicking the presymptomatic and the mild stage of fAD, and compared it to that observed in 7-month old STZ-icv rats mimicking mild-to-moderate sAD. Cognitive and behavioral performance was tested by Morris Water Maze, Open Field and Elevated Plus Maze tests, and metabolic status by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and fluorodeoxyglucose Positron-Emission Tomography scan. The level of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and soluble amyloid β1-42 (sAβ1-42) was measured by ELISA and the protein expression of insulin receptor (IR), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and pre-/post-synaptic markers by Western blot analysis. Although galactose normalized alterations in cerebral glucose metabolism in all Tg2576 mice (5M+2M; 10M+2M) and STZ-icv rats, it did not improve cognitive impairment in either model. Improvement of reduced grooming behavior and normalization in reduced plasma insulin levels were seen only in 5M+2M Tg2576 mice while in 10M+2M Tg2576 mice oral galactose induced metabolic exacerbation at the level of plasma insulin, GLP-1 homeostasis and glucose intolerance, and additionally increased hippocampal sAβ1-42 level, decreased IR expression and increased GSK-3β activity. The results indicate that therapeutic potential of oral galactose seems to depend on the stage and the type/model of AD and to differ in the absence and the presence of AD-like pathology.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
04 Faculty of Medicine > Neuroscience Center Zurich
04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Pharmacology
Life Sciences > Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Language:English
Date:1 April 2019
Deposited On:09 Aug 2019 14:56
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 11:06
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0028-3908
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.12.018
PubMed ID:30571958

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