This chapter provides the theoretical background and context for the chapters in the book. It explains the framework behind the research, the countries involved, how the research was funded, and how work was organized. The studies in the book were conducted in the context of a research network that was funded by the European Union framework program ‘Cooperation in Science and Technology’ (COST). The structure and purpose of the COST scheme and network had an impact upon which countries could be involved. The projects had to rely on the voluntary participation of country experts present in the network. A total of 31 European countries joined the network with 22 participating in this book.