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Ossified blood vessels in primary familial brain calcification elicit a neurotoxic astrocyte response


Zarb, Yvette; Weber-Stadlbauer, Ulrike; Kirschenbaum, Daniel; Kindler, Diana Rita; Richetto, Juliet; Keller, Daniel; Rademakers, Rosa; Dickson, Dennis W; Pasch, Andreas; Byzova, Tatiana; Nahar, Khayrun; Voigt, Fabian F; Helmchen, Fritjof; Boss, Andreas; Aguzzi, Adriano; Klohs, Jan; Keller, Annika (2019). Ossified blood vessels in primary familial brain calcification elicit a neurotoxic astrocyte response. Brain: a journal of neurology, 142(4):885-902.

Abstract

Brain calcifications are commonly detected in aged individuals and accompany numerous brain diseases, but their functional importance is not understood. In cases of primary familial brain calcification, an autosomally inherited neuropsychiatric disorder, the presence of bilateral brain calcifications in the absence of secondary causes of brain calcification is a diagnostic criterion. To date, mutations in five genes including solute carrier 20 member 2 (SLC20A2), xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 (XPR1), myogenesis regulating glycosidase (MYORG), platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRB), are considered causal. Previously, we have reported that mutations in PDGFB in humans are associated with primary familial brain calcification, and mice hypomorphic for PDGFB (Pdgfbret/ret) present with brain vessel calcifications in the deep regions of the brain that increase with age, mimicking the pathology observed in human mutation carriers. In this study, we characterize the cellular environment surrounding calcifications in Pdgfbret/ret animals and show that cells around vessel-associated calcifications express markers for osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes, and that bone matrix proteins are present in vessel-associated calcifications. Additionally, we also demonstrate the osteogenic environment around brain calcifications in genetically confirmed primary familial brain calcification cases. We show that calcifications cause oxidative stress in astrocytes and evoke expression of neurotoxic astrocyte markers. Similar to previously reported human primary familial brain calcification cases, we describe high interindividual variation in calcification load in Pdgfbret/ret animals, as assessed by ex vivo and in vivo quantification of calcifications. We also report that serum of Pdgfbret/ret animals does not differ in calcification propensity from control animals and that vessel calcification occurs only in the brains of Pdgfbret/ret animals. Notably, ossification of vessels and astrocytic neurotoxic response is associated with specific behavioural and cognitive alterations, some of which are associated with primary familial brain calcification in a subset of patients.

Abstract

Brain calcifications are commonly detected in aged individuals and accompany numerous brain diseases, but their functional importance is not understood. In cases of primary familial brain calcification, an autosomally inherited neuropsychiatric disorder, the presence of bilateral brain calcifications in the absence of secondary causes of brain calcification is a diagnostic criterion. To date, mutations in five genes including solute carrier 20 member 2 (SLC20A2), xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 (XPR1), myogenesis regulating glycosidase (MYORG), platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRB), are considered causal. Previously, we have reported that mutations in PDGFB in humans are associated with primary familial brain calcification, and mice hypomorphic for PDGFB (Pdgfbret/ret) present with brain vessel calcifications in the deep regions of the brain that increase with age, mimicking the pathology observed in human mutation carriers. In this study, we characterize the cellular environment surrounding calcifications in Pdgfbret/ret animals and show that cells around vessel-associated calcifications express markers for osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes, and that bone matrix proteins are present in vessel-associated calcifications. Additionally, we also demonstrate the osteogenic environment around brain calcifications in genetically confirmed primary familial brain calcification cases. We show that calcifications cause oxidative stress in astrocytes and evoke expression of neurotoxic astrocyte markers. Similar to previously reported human primary familial brain calcification cases, we describe high interindividual variation in calcification load in Pdgfbret/ret animals, as assessed by ex vivo and in vivo quantification of calcifications. We also report that serum of Pdgfbret/ret animals does not differ in calcification propensity from control animals and that vessel calcification occurs only in the brains of Pdgfbret/ret animals. Notably, ossification of vessels and astrocytic neurotoxic response is associated with specific behavioural and cognitive alterations, some of which are associated with primary familial brain calcification in a subset of patients.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurosurgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:PDGFB; neurotoxic astrocyte; ossification; prepulse inhibition; primary familial brain calcification Clinical Neurology
Language:English
Date:1 April 2019
Deposited On:21 Aug 2019 10:15
Last Modified:25 Sep 2019 00:42
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0006-8950
OA Status:Green
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz032
PubMed ID:30805583
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID31003A_159514
  • : Project TitleThe pathogenic mechanism of small vessel calcification in the brain

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