Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia in Endurance Performance Exercise-associated hyponatremia is defined as a plasma sodium concentration of <135 mmol/l and was first described by Timothy Noakes at the Comrades Marathon in South Africa in the mid-1980s. A decrease in plasma sodium <135 mmol/l occurs with excessive fluid intake. Risk factors include long to very long endurance performance, extreme climatic conditions, female gender and competitions in the USA. Regarding its prevalence by sport, exercise-associated hyponatraemia tends to occur while swimming and running, but rarely when cycling. While mild exercise-associated hyponatremia does not lead to clinical symptoms, severe hyponatremia due to cerebral edema can lead to neurological deficits and even death. The best prevention of exercise-associated hyponatremia is the reduction of fluid intake during exercise.