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Molecular Pathophysiology of Acid-Base Disorders


Wagner, Carsten A; Imenez Silva, Pedro H; Bourgeois, Soline (2019). Molecular Pathophysiology of Acid-Base Disorders. Seminars in Nephrology, 39(4):340-352.

Abstract

Acid-base balance is critical for normal life. Acute and chronic disturbances impact cellular energy metabolism, endocrine signaling, ion channel activity, neuronal activity, and cardiovascular functions such as cardiac contractility and vascular blood flow. Maintenance and adaptation of acid-base homeostasis are mostly controlled by respiration and kidney. The kidney contributes to acid-base balance by reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate, regenerating bicarbonate through ammoniagenesis and generation of protons, and by excreting acid. This review focuses on acid-base disorders caused by renal processes, both inherited and acquired. Distinct rare inherited monogenic diseases affecting acid-base handling in the proximal tubule and collecting duct have been identified. In the proximal tubule, mutations of solute carrier 4A4 (SLC4A4) (electrogenic Na/HCO-cotransporter Na/bicarbonate cotransporter e1 [NBCe1]) and other genes such as CLCN5 (Cl/H-antiporter), SLC2A2 (GLUT2 glucose transporter), or EHHADH (enoyl-CoA, hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) causing more generalized proximal tubule dysfunction can cause proximal renal tubular acidosis resulting from bicarbonate wasting and reduced ammoniagenesis. Mutations in adenosine triphosphate ATP6V1 (B1 H-ATPase subunit), ATPV0A4 (a4 H-ATPase subunit), SLC4A1 (anion exchanger 1), and FOXI1 (forkhead transcription factor) cause distal renal tubular acidosis type I. Carbonic anhydrase II mutations affect several nephron segments and give rise to a mixed proximal and distal phenotype. Finally, mutations in genes affecting aldosterone synthesis, signaling, or downstream targets can lead to hyperkalemic variants of renal tubular acidosis (type IV). More common forms of renal acidosis are found in patients with advanced stages of chronic kidney disease and are owing, at least in part, to a reduced capacity for ammoniagenesis.

Abstract

Acid-base balance is critical for normal life. Acute and chronic disturbances impact cellular energy metabolism, endocrine signaling, ion channel activity, neuronal activity, and cardiovascular functions such as cardiac contractility and vascular blood flow. Maintenance and adaptation of acid-base homeostasis are mostly controlled by respiration and kidney. The kidney contributes to acid-base balance by reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate, regenerating bicarbonate through ammoniagenesis and generation of protons, and by excreting acid. This review focuses on acid-base disorders caused by renal processes, both inherited and acquired. Distinct rare inherited monogenic diseases affecting acid-base handling in the proximal tubule and collecting duct have been identified. In the proximal tubule, mutations of solute carrier 4A4 (SLC4A4) (electrogenic Na/HCO-cotransporter Na/bicarbonate cotransporter e1 [NBCe1]) and other genes such as CLCN5 (Cl/H-antiporter), SLC2A2 (GLUT2 glucose transporter), or EHHADH (enoyl-CoA, hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) causing more generalized proximal tubule dysfunction can cause proximal renal tubular acidosis resulting from bicarbonate wasting and reduced ammoniagenesis. Mutations in adenosine triphosphate ATP6V1 (B1 H-ATPase subunit), ATPV0A4 (a4 H-ATPase subunit), SLC4A1 (anion exchanger 1), and FOXI1 (forkhead transcription factor) cause distal renal tubular acidosis type I. Carbonic anhydrase II mutations affect several nephron segments and give rise to a mixed proximal and distal phenotype. Finally, mutations in genes affecting aldosterone synthesis, signaling, or downstream targets can lead to hyperkalemic variants of renal tubular acidosis (type IV). More common forms of renal acidosis are found in patients with advanced stages of chronic kidney disease and are owing, at least in part, to a reduced capacity for ammoniagenesis.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Date:July 2019
Deposited On:21 Aug 2019 11:26
Last Modified:17 Sep 2019 20:30
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0270-9295
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semnephrol.2019.04.004
PubMed ID:31300090

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Language: English
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