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In vitro efficacy of antifungal agents alone and in shampoo formulation against dandruff‐associated Malassezia spp. and Staphylococcus spp


Leong, C; Schmid, B; Buttafuoco, A; Glatz, M; Bosshard, P P (2019). In vitro efficacy of antifungal agents alone and in shampoo formulation against dandruff‐associated Malassezia spp. and Staphylococcus spp. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 41(3):221-227.

Abstract

Objective
Dandruff is a complex skin condition characterized by unpleasant itching and flaking of the scalp. It is primarily attributed to the over colonization of Malassezia yeasts such as Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta. Some studies also suggest the involvement of staphylococci bacteria in dandruff disease pathogenesis. We aimed to access the effectiveness of anti‐dandruff treatments by determining the efficacy of the active antifungal agents alone or in commercial shampoo formulations against Malassezia and Staphylococcus.
Methods
The minimum inhibitory concentrations of three anti‐dandruff shampoo antifungals (zinc pyrithione, ketoconazole and ciclopirox) and the witch hazel extract, hamamelitannin were tested against commensal Malassezia and Staphylococcus species using broth microdilution methods. In experiments simulating shampoo exposure and washing conditions on the scalp, we also tested the ability of the above agents in shampoo formulation (Head and Shoulders® (H&S), Ketomed®, Sebiprox®, Erol Healthcare Hair Shampoo® respectively) along with a generic over‐the‐shelf shampoo to inhibit microbial growth.
Results
Ketomed® and H&S shampoo were the most effective treatments against Malassezia in in vitro assays and washing simulation experiments. Erol Healthcare Hair Shampoo® was less effective against Malassezia as it required a longer contact time to achieve growth inhibition for some species. Sebiprox® showed variable efficacy in washing and contact time experiments whereas the generic over‐the‐shelf shampoo was the least effective in inhibiting Malassezia and Staphylococcus growth.
Conclusion
From these findings, it is reasonable that patients with dandruff may benefit from applying specific antifungal shampoo although results may vary with microbial species, time of contact and shampoo formulation components.

Abstract

Objective
Dandruff is a complex skin condition characterized by unpleasant itching and flaking of the scalp. It is primarily attributed to the over colonization of Malassezia yeasts such as Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta. Some studies also suggest the involvement of staphylococci bacteria in dandruff disease pathogenesis. We aimed to access the effectiveness of anti‐dandruff treatments by determining the efficacy of the active antifungal agents alone or in commercial shampoo formulations against Malassezia and Staphylococcus.
Methods
The minimum inhibitory concentrations of three anti‐dandruff shampoo antifungals (zinc pyrithione, ketoconazole and ciclopirox) and the witch hazel extract, hamamelitannin were tested against commensal Malassezia and Staphylococcus species using broth microdilution methods. In experiments simulating shampoo exposure and washing conditions on the scalp, we also tested the ability of the above agents in shampoo formulation (Head and Shoulders® (H&S), Ketomed®, Sebiprox®, Erol Healthcare Hair Shampoo® respectively) along with a generic over‐the‐shelf shampoo to inhibit microbial growth.
Results
Ketomed® and H&S shampoo were the most effective treatments against Malassezia in in vitro assays and washing simulation experiments. Erol Healthcare Hair Shampoo® was less effective against Malassezia as it required a longer contact time to achieve growth inhibition for some species. Sebiprox® showed variable efficacy in washing and contact time experiments whereas the generic over‐the‐shelf shampoo was the least effective in inhibiting Malassezia and Staphylococcus growth.
Conclusion
From these findings, it is reasonable that patients with dandruff may benefit from applying specific antifungal shampoo although results may vary with microbial species, time of contact and shampoo formulation components.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Dermatology Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Chemistry (miscellaneous)
Life Sciences > Aging
Life Sciences > Pharmaceutical Science
Life Sciences > Drug Discovery
Health Sciences > Dermatology
Physical Sciences > Colloid and Surface Chemistry
Uncontrolled Keywords:Colloid and Surface Chemistry, Ageing, Chemistry (miscellaneous), Drug Discovery, Pharmaceutical Science, Dermatology
Language:English
Date:9 May 2019
Deposited On:22 Aug 2019 11:07
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 11:13
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0142-5463
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/ics.12525

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