In this article, a framework is presented to aid in the identification and prioritization of research projects related to the development of materials for sustainable construction. The framework is based on a holistic ranking of materials’ technical, economic, and environmental performance as well as the future availability of their respective raw material constituents. The detailed ranking enables a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of existing as well as newly developed materials. Each of the 27 attributes included in the framework is measured on a precisely defined scale, which is based on literature and expert data, and presented in detail. Thus, an objective and efficient evaluation of individual materials by practitioners and researchers is possible. Combining the evaluation of material performance with the analysis of factors affecting the respective long-term availability, it is possible to focus funding on specific areas and approaches where research and policy measures have the highest probability of providing long-term improvements to the construction industry. The applicability of the framework is illustrated with the evaluation of steel and stainless steel.