The architecture of protein assemblies and their remodeling during physiological processes is fundamental to cells. Therefore, providing high-resolution snapshots of macromolecular complexes in their native environment is of major importance for understanding the molecular biology of the cell. Cellular structural biology by means of cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) offers unique insights into cellular processes at an unprecedented resolution. Recent technological advances have enabled the detection of single impinging electrons and improved the contrast of electron microscopic imaging, thereby significantly increasing the sensitivity and resolution. Moreover, various sample preparation approaches have paved the way to observe every part of a eukaryotic cell, and even multicellular specimens, under the electron beam. Imaging of macromolecular machineries at high resolution directly within their native environment is thereby becoming reality. In this review, we discuss several sample preparation and labeling techniques that allow the visualization and identification of macromolecular assemblies in situ, and demonstrate how these methods have been used to study eukaryotic cellular landscapes.