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HIV Transmission Chains Exhibit Greater HLA-B Homogeneity Than Randomly Expected


Abstract

BACKGROUND HIV's capacity to escape immune recognition by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a core component of HIV pathogenesis. A better understanding of the distribution of HLA class I in HIV-infected patients would improve our knowledge of pathogenesis in relation to the host HLA type and could better improve therapeutic strategies against HIV.
MATERIALS AND METHODS Three hundred one to 325 transmission pairs and 469-496 clusters were identified for analysis among Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) participants using HIV pol sequences from the drug resistance database. HLA class I data were compiled at 3 specificity levels: 4-digit, 2-digit alleles, and HLA-B supertype. The analysis tabulated HLA-I homogeneity as 2 measures: the proportion of transmission pairs, which are HLA concordant, and the average percentage of allele matches within all clusters. These measures were compared with the mean value across randomizations with randomly assorted individuals.
RESULTS We repeated the analysis for different HLA classification levels and separately for HLA-A, -B, and -C. Subanalyses by the risk group were performed for HLA-B. HLA-B showed significantly greater homogeneity in the transmission chains (2-digit clusters: 0.291 vs. 0.251, P value = 0.009; supertype clusters: 0.659 vs. 0.611, P value = 0.002; supertype pairs: 0.655 vs. 0.608, P value = 0.014). Risk group restriction caused the effect to disappear for men-who-have-sex-with-men but not for other risk groups. We also examined if protective HLA alleles B27 and B57 were under- or overrepresented in the transmission chains, although this yielded no significant pattern.
CONCLUSIONS The HLA-B alleles of patients within HIV-1 transmission chains segregate in homogenous clusters/pairs, potentially indicating preferential transmission among HLA-B concordant individuals.

Abstract

BACKGROUND HIV's capacity to escape immune recognition by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a core component of HIV pathogenesis. A better understanding of the distribution of HLA class I in HIV-infected patients would improve our knowledge of pathogenesis in relation to the host HLA type and could better improve therapeutic strategies against HIV.
MATERIALS AND METHODS Three hundred one to 325 transmission pairs and 469-496 clusters were identified for analysis among Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) participants using HIV pol sequences from the drug resistance database. HLA class I data were compiled at 3 specificity levels: 4-digit, 2-digit alleles, and HLA-B supertype. The analysis tabulated HLA-I homogeneity as 2 measures: the proportion of transmission pairs, which are HLA concordant, and the average percentage of allele matches within all clusters. These measures were compared with the mean value across randomizations with randomly assorted individuals.
RESULTS We repeated the analysis for different HLA classification levels and separately for HLA-A, -B, and -C. Subanalyses by the risk group were performed for HLA-B. HLA-B showed significantly greater homogeneity in the transmission chains (2-digit clusters: 0.291 vs. 0.251, P value = 0.009; supertype clusters: 0.659 vs. 0.611, P value = 0.002; supertype pairs: 0.655 vs. 0.608, P value = 0.014). Risk group restriction caused the effect to disappear for men-who-have-sex-with-men but not for other risk groups. We also examined if protective HLA alleles B27 and B57 were under- or overrepresented in the transmission chains, although this yielded no significant pattern.
CONCLUSIONS The HLA-B alleles of patients within HIV-1 transmission chains segregate in homogenous clusters/pairs, potentially indicating preferential transmission among HLA-B concordant individuals.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:15 August 2019
Deposited On:12 Sep 2019 08:40
Last Modified:25 Sep 2019 00:45
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN:1525-4135
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002077
PubMed ID:31107301

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