We give a microscopic derivation of time-dependent correlation functions of the 1D cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) from many-body quantum theory. The starting point of our proof is  on the time-independent problem and  on the corresponding problem on a finite lattice. An important new obstacle in our analysis is the need to work with a cutoff in the number of particles, which breaks the Gaussian structure of the free quantum field and prevents the use of the Wick theorem. We overcome it by means of complex analytic methods. Our methods apply to the nonlocal NLS with bounded convolution potential. In the periodic setting, we also consider the local NLS, arising from short-range interactions in the many-body setting. To that end, we need the dispersion of the NLS in the form of periodic Strichartz estimates in $\X^s,b\) spaces.