The immune system plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Tumor immune rejection has been previously linked to the activation of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) STAT1, IRF-5 and IRF-1. Specific immunoregulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) may impact the expression of these ISG in the tumor microenvironment. In this translational study, we develop a digital image analysis protocol to identify the ISG-gene expression signature and investigate miRNA expression in the immediate environment of invading cancer cells. Digital immunophenotyping was performed using next generation tissue microarrays from 241 well-characterized CRC patients and analyzed with clinicopathological and molecular information. Active ISG signaling in the tumor stroma differentiated an immune-activated (n = 178) and a quiescent (n = 43) phenotype. The activated phenotype was associated with high counts of intratumoral CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL; p = 0.007) and expression of the immune effector molecules granzyme B (p < 0.001) and perforin (p = 0.020). Immune-activated tumors also showed an elevated expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, p = 0.006) which may facilitate CTL infiltration. Patients with immune-activated CRC had a considerably reduced risk of developing distant metastases (p = 0.001, OR = 0.034, 95%CI = 0.006–0.183). High expression of the immunoregulatory miR-34a and miR-93 corresponded to a 2–2.5-fold decrease of STAT1 (p = 0.006) and IRF-1 (p = 0.058), a feature more commonly seen in a quiescent microenvironment. Analysis of a combined ISG marker profile by digital pathology stratifies CRC patients into diametrically opposed immune phenotypes. Targeted inhibition of miRNAs within the tumor microenvironment may form a new strategy to stimulate the anti-tumoral immune response.