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Extrafloral nectaries in Leguminosae: phylogenetic distribution, morphological diversity and evolution


Marazzi, Brigitte; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Luckow, Melissa A; Ringelberg, Jens J; Hughes, Colin E (2019). Extrafloral nectaries in Leguminosae: phylogenetic distribution, morphological diversity and evolution. Australian Systematic Botany, 32:409-458.

Abstract

Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) mediating ecologically important ant–plant protection mutualisms are especially common and unusually diverse in the Leguminosae. We present the first comprehensively curated list of legume genera with EFNs, detailing and illustrating their systematic and phylogenetic distributions, locations on the plant, morphology and anatomy, on the basis of a unified classification of EFN categories and a time-calibrated phylogeny, incorporating 710 of the 768 genera. This new synthesis, the first since Mckey (1989)’s seminal paper, increases the number of genera with EFNs to 153 (20% of legumes), distributed across subfamilies Cercidoideae (1), Detarioideae (19), Caesalpinioideae (87) and Papilionoideae (46). EFNs occur at nine locations, and are most prevalent on vegetative plant parts, especially leaves (74%) and inflorescence axes (26%). Four main categories (with eight subcategories) are recognised and include the following: formless, trichomatic (exposed, hollow), parenchymatic (embedded, pit, flat, elevated) and abscission zone EFNs (non-differentiated, swollen scars). Phylogenetic reconstruction of EFNs suggests independent evolutionary trajectories of different EFN types, with elevated EFNs restricted almost exclusively to Caesalpinioideae (where they underwent spectacular morphological disparification), flat EFNs in Detarioideae, swollen scar EFNs in Papilionoideae, and Cercidoideae is the only subfamily bearing intrastipular EFNs. We discuss the complex evolutionary history of EFNs and highlight future research directions.

Abstract

Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) mediating ecologically important ant–plant protection mutualisms are especially common and unusually diverse in the Leguminosae. We present the first comprehensively curated list of legume genera with EFNs, detailing and illustrating their systematic and phylogenetic distributions, locations on the plant, morphology and anatomy, on the basis of a unified classification of EFN categories and a time-calibrated phylogeny, incorporating 710 of the 768 genera. This new synthesis, the first since Mckey (1989)’s seminal paper, increases the number of genera with EFNs to 153 (20% of legumes), distributed across subfamilies Cercidoideae (1), Detarioideae (19), Caesalpinioideae (87) and Papilionoideae (46). EFNs occur at nine locations, and are most prevalent on vegetative plant parts, especially leaves (74%) and inflorescence axes (26%). Four main categories (with eight subcategories) are recognised and include the following: formless, trichomatic (exposed, hollow), parenchymatic (embedded, pit, flat, elevated) and abscission zone EFNs (non-differentiated, swollen scars). Phylogenetic reconstruction of EFNs suggests independent evolutionary trajectories of different EFN types, with elevated EFNs restricted almost exclusively to Caesalpinioideae (where they underwent spectacular morphological disparification), flat EFNs in Detarioideae, swollen scar EFNs in Papilionoideae, and Cercidoideae is the only subfamily bearing intrastipular EFNs. We discuss the complex evolutionary history of EFNs and highlight future research directions.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany
07 Faculty of Science > Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Plant Science, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Language:English
Date:1 January 2019
Deposited On:07 Feb 2020 09:19
Last Modified:08 Feb 2020 08:34
Publisher:CSIRO Publishing
ISSN:1030-1887
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1071/sb19012

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