Combining neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and surgery is part of multimodality treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), but not all patients benefit from this approach. In this exploratory analysis, we investigated the prognostic value of circulating miR-625-3p and lncRNA GAS5 after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. 36 MPM patients from the SAKK 17/04 trial (NCT00334594), whose blood was available before and after chemotherapy were investigated. RNA was isolated from plasma and reverse transcribed into cDNA. miR-16-5p and β-actin were used as a reference gene for miR-625-3p and GAS5, respectively. After exclusion of samples due to hemolysis or RNA degradation, paired plasma samples from 32 patients before and after chemotherapy were further analyzed. Quantification of miR-625-3p levels in all 64 samples revealed a bimodal distribution and cloning and sequencing of miR-625-3p qPCR product revealed the presence of miR-625-3p isomiRs. Relative change of the circulating miR-625-3p and GAS5 levels after chemotherapy showed that increased circulating miR-625-3p and decreased GAS5 was significantly associated with disease progression (Fisher's test, = 0.0393). In addition, decreased levels of circulating GAS5 were significantly associated with shorter overall and progression-free survival. Our exploratory analysis revealed a potential value of circulating non-coding RNA for selection of patients likely to benefit from surgery after platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy.