Following the positive response from readers, the study has been updated to reflect the dynamic process made in operationalizing Article 6. It contains additional information and highlights ongoing developments in Article 6 pilot activities supported through bilateral channels, regional organizations and multilateral development banks. The authors analyse emerging trends and early experience with Article 6 implementation and look particularly at how the pilots are responding to the new challenges posed by the Paris Agreement. This includes a discussion of the stronger role of governments in Article 6 cooperation, the relationship with NDC commitments, e.g. for challenges related to determining additionality and baselines, the need for tracking and accounting of ITMOs, sustainable development impacts and overall mitigation in global emissions.