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Predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium in neurology: a prospective cohort study of 1487 patients


Zipser, Carl Moritz; Deuel, Jeremy; Ernst, Jutta; Schubert, Maria; Weller, Michael; von Känel, Roland; Boettger, Soenke (2019). Predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium in neurology: a prospective cohort study of 1487 patients. Journal of Neurology, 266(12):3065-3075.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium are well known; however, their interaction and impact on delirium in neurological patients remains largely unknown. Therefore, those factors were evaluated in hospitalized patients with neurological disorders.

METHODS

In this prospective cohort study, 1487 neurological patients were included, 356 patients with delirium and 1131 without delirium. Relevant neurological- and medical-related clusters were assessed with multiple regression analyses, prediction models, and cluster analysis evaluating their association with delirium.

RESULTS

The 1-year incidence of delirium in this cohort was 23.9%. Delirium developed in 31% of patients with stroke, in 39.5% with epilepsy, and in 58.4% with ICH. The most relevant predisposing factors were substance-use disorders (OR 4.24, 2.28-7.78, p < 0.001), advanced age (OR 3.44, CI 2.40-4.92, p < 0.001), and neurodegenerative disorders (OR 2.58, CI 1.47-4.54, p = 0.001). The most relevant precipitating factors were meningitis (OR 21.52, CI 1.22-379.83, p = 0.036), acute renal failure (OR 10.01, CI 1.13-88.73, p = 0.039), and intracranial hemorrhage (OR 3.62, CI 2.08-6.30, p < 0.001). Delirious patients were hospitalized 6 days longer, had higher in-hospital mortality, and were discharged more often to nursing homes and rehabilitation. Best predictor for delirium was the coexistence of advanced age with epilepsy (58.3%, p < 0.001), while patients aged < 65 years without epilepsy and stroke rarely developed delirium (5.1%, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Delirium is common in elder neurological patients and associated with worse outcome. Primary cerebral conditions most frequently precipitate delirium in neurology. Neurologists are advised to monitor symptoms of delirium in the presence of risk factors to enable both timely diagnostic work-up and management of delirium.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium are well known; however, their interaction and impact on delirium in neurological patients remains largely unknown. Therefore, those factors were evaluated in hospitalized patients with neurological disorders.

METHODS

In this prospective cohort study, 1487 neurological patients were included, 356 patients with delirium and 1131 without delirium. Relevant neurological- and medical-related clusters were assessed with multiple regression analyses, prediction models, and cluster analysis evaluating their association with delirium.

RESULTS

The 1-year incidence of delirium in this cohort was 23.9%. Delirium developed in 31% of patients with stroke, in 39.5% with epilepsy, and in 58.4% with ICH. The most relevant predisposing factors were substance-use disorders (OR 4.24, 2.28-7.78, p < 0.001), advanced age (OR 3.44, CI 2.40-4.92, p < 0.001), and neurodegenerative disorders (OR 2.58, CI 1.47-4.54, p = 0.001). The most relevant precipitating factors were meningitis (OR 21.52, CI 1.22-379.83, p = 0.036), acute renal failure (OR 10.01, CI 1.13-88.73, p = 0.039), and intracranial hemorrhage (OR 3.62, CI 2.08-6.30, p < 0.001). Delirious patients were hospitalized 6 days longer, had higher in-hospital mortality, and were discharged more often to nursing homes and rehabilitation. Best predictor for delirium was the coexistence of advanced age with epilepsy (58.3%, p < 0.001), while patients aged < 65 years without epilepsy and stroke rarely developed delirium (5.1%, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Delirium is common in elder neurological patients and associated with worse outcome. Primary cerebral conditions most frequently precipitate delirium in neurology. Neurologists are advised to monitor symptoms of delirium in the presence of risk factors to enable both timely diagnostic work-up and management of delirium.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Balgrist University Hospital, Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Center
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Klinik für Konsiliarpsychiatrie und Psychosomatik
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 December 2019
Deposited On:17 Oct 2019 12:36
Last Modified:28 Feb 2020 08:35
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0340-5354
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09533-4
PubMed ID:31520105

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