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Trichloressigsäure und Natriumtrichloracetat [MAK Value Documentation in German language, 2016]


Hartwig, A; MAK Commission; et al; Arand, Michael (2016). Trichloressigsäure und Natriumtrichloracetat [MAK Value Documentation in German language, 2016]. The MAK Collection for Occupational Health and Safety, 1(3):1955-1996.

Abstract

Trichloroacetic Acid and Sodium Trichloroacetate2 Trichloroacetic Acid and Sodium Trichloroacetate

The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re‐evaluated trichloroacetic acid and sodium trichloroacetate to derive a maximum concentration at the workplace (MAK value), considering all toxicity endpoints. Available publications are described in detail. After oral application of trichloroacetic acid or the sodium salt, the target organ is the liver with mice being more susceptible than rats. Trichloroacetic acid can be regarded as non‐genotoxic. Trichloroacetic acid is only carcinogenic in the liver of mice, not in other organs or in rats. Humans are much less sensitive to mechanisms regarded to be causative for effects in the liver of male mice. Therefore, trichloroacetic acid and its sodium salt, which acts in vivo like trichloroacetic acid, are not classified as carcinogens or germ cell mutagens. The systemic NOAEL in rats is 32.5 mg/kg bw and day in a 2‐year study, which would correspond to a MAK value of 20 mg/m3.

However, trichloroacetic acid and sodium trichloroacetate are corrosive to the eye of rabbits. As no inhalation studies are available to judge possible irritating effects on the respiratory tract, phosphorous acid, which is also corrosive to the eye, is used as a read‐across. The irritation strength of the three substances is very similar. Since the MAK value of phosphorous acid is 2 mg/m3, and the critical effect of trichloroacetic acid and sodium trichloroacetate is local toxicity, a MAK value of 2 mg/m3 is also assigned to sodium trichloroacetate. As trichloroacetic acid is a vapour at this concentration range, a corresponding MAK value is set in ml/m3. Applying the preferred value approach, a MAK value of 0.2 ml/m3 corresponding to 1.4 mg/m3 is derived for trichloroacetic acid, which also takes into account the slightly higher acidity compared to phosphorous acid. As the local effect is critical, both substances are assigned to Peak Limitation Category I with an excursion factor of 1.

The NOEL for developmental toxicity in rats is 100 mg sodium trichloroacetate/kg bw and day, corresponding to 100 mg/m3. Thus, damage to the embryo or foetus is unlikely when the MAK value is observed and both substances are classified in Pregnancy Risk Group C. For sodium trichloroacetate, but not for trichloroacetic acid, skin contact may contribute significantly to systemic toxicity; sodium trichloroacetate is designated with an “H” notation. Sensitization is not expected from the available data.

Abstract

Trichloroacetic Acid and Sodium Trichloroacetate2 Trichloroacetic Acid and Sodium Trichloroacetate

The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re‐evaluated trichloroacetic acid and sodium trichloroacetate to derive a maximum concentration at the workplace (MAK value), considering all toxicity endpoints. Available publications are described in detail. After oral application of trichloroacetic acid or the sodium salt, the target organ is the liver with mice being more susceptible than rats. Trichloroacetic acid can be regarded as non‐genotoxic. Trichloroacetic acid is only carcinogenic in the liver of mice, not in other organs or in rats. Humans are much less sensitive to mechanisms regarded to be causative for effects in the liver of male mice. Therefore, trichloroacetic acid and its sodium salt, which acts in vivo like trichloroacetic acid, are not classified as carcinogens or germ cell mutagens. The systemic NOAEL in rats is 32.5 mg/kg bw and day in a 2‐year study, which would correspond to a MAK value of 20 mg/m3.

However, trichloroacetic acid and sodium trichloroacetate are corrosive to the eye of rabbits. As no inhalation studies are available to judge possible irritating effects on the respiratory tract, phosphorous acid, which is also corrosive to the eye, is used as a read‐across. The irritation strength of the three substances is very similar. Since the MAK value of phosphorous acid is 2 mg/m3, and the critical effect of trichloroacetic acid and sodium trichloroacetate is local toxicity, a MAK value of 2 mg/m3 is also assigned to sodium trichloroacetate. As trichloroacetic acid is a vapour at this concentration range, a corresponding MAK value is set in ml/m3. Applying the preferred value approach, a MAK value of 0.2 ml/m3 corresponding to 1.4 mg/m3 is derived for trichloroacetic acid, which also takes into account the slightly higher acidity compared to phosphorous acid. As the local effect is critical, both substances are assigned to Peak Limitation Category I with an excursion factor of 1.

The NOEL for developmental toxicity in rats is 100 mg sodium trichloroacetate/kg bw and day, corresponding to 100 mg/m3. Thus, damage to the embryo or foetus is unlikely when the MAK value is observed and both substances are classified in Pregnancy Risk Group C. For sodium trichloroacetate, but not for trichloroacetic acid, skin contact may contribute significantly to systemic toxicity; sodium trichloroacetate is designated with an “H” notation. Sensitization is not expected from the available data.

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Item Type:Journal Article, not_refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:German
Date:25 July 2016
Deposited On:18 Oct 2019 08:43
Last Modified:18 Oct 2019 08:44
Publisher:Wiley-VCH Verlag
ISSN:2509-2383
ISBN:9783527600410
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/3527600418.mb7603d0061

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