Developmental pathoconnectomics is an emerging field that aims to unravel the events leading to and outcome from disrupted brain connectivity development. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology enables the portrayal of human brain connectivity before birth and has the potential to offer novel insights into normal and pathological human brain development. This review gives an overview of the currently used MRI techniques for connectomic imaging, with a particular focus on recent studies that have successfully translated these to the in utero or postmortem fetal setting. Possible mechanisms of how pathologies, maternal, or environmental factors may interfere with the emergence of the connectome are considered. The review highlights the importance of advanced image post processing and the need for reproducibility studies for connectomic imaging. Further work and novel data-sharing efforts would be required to validate or disprove recent observations from in utero connectomic studies, which are typically limited by low case numbers and high data drop out. Novel knowledge with regard to the ontogenesis, architecture, and temporal dynamics of the human brain connectome would lead to the more precise understanding of the etiological background of neurodevelopmental and mental disorders. To achieve this goal, this review considers the growing evidence from advanced fetal connectomic imaging for the increased vulnerability of the human brain during late gestation for pathologies that might lead to impaired connectome development and subsequently interfere with the development of neural substrates serving higher cognition.