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Zoonotic nematodes of wild carnivores


Otranto, Domenico; Deplazes, Peter (2019). Zoonotic nematodes of wild carnivores. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 9:370-383.

Abstract

For a long time, wildlife carnivores have been disregarded for their potential in transmitting zoonotic nematodes. However, human activities and politics (e.g., fragmentation of the environment, land use, recycling in urban settings) have consistently favoured the encroachment of urban areas upon wild environments, ultimately causing alteration of many ecosystems with changes in the composition of the wild fauna and destruction of boundaries between domestic and wild environments. Therefore, the exchange of parasites from wild to domestic carnivores and vice versa have enhanced the public health relevance of wild carnivores and their potential impact in the epidemiology of many zoonotic parasitic diseases. The risk of transmission of zoonotic nematodes from wild carnivores to humans via food, water and soil (e.g., genera Ancylostoma, Baylisascaris, Capillaria, Uncinaria, Strongyloides, Toxocara, Trichinella) or arthropod vectors (e.g., genera Dirofilaria spp., Onchocerca spp., Thelazia spp.) and the emergence, re-emergence or the decreasing trend of selected infections is herein discussed. In addition, the reasons for limited scientific information about some parasites of zoonotic concern have been examined. A correct compromise between conservation of wild carnivores and risk of introduction and spreading of parasites of public health concern is discussed in order to adequately manage the risk of zoonotic nematodes of wild carnivores in line with the 'One Health' approach.

Abstract

For a long time, wildlife carnivores have been disregarded for their potential in transmitting zoonotic nematodes. However, human activities and politics (e.g., fragmentation of the environment, land use, recycling in urban settings) have consistently favoured the encroachment of urban areas upon wild environments, ultimately causing alteration of many ecosystems with changes in the composition of the wild fauna and destruction of boundaries between domestic and wild environments. Therefore, the exchange of parasites from wild to domestic carnivores and vice versa have enhanced the public health relevance of wild carnivores and their potential impact in the epidemiology of many zoonotic parasitic diseases. The risk of transmission of zoonotic nematodes from wild carnivores to humans via food, water and soil (e.g., genera Ancylostoma, Baylisascaris, Capillaria, Uncinaria, Strongyloides, Toxocara, Trichinella) or arthropod vectors (e.g., genera Dirofilaria spp., Onchocerca spp., Thelazia spp.) and the emergence, re-emergence or the decreasing trend of selected infections is herein discussed. In addition, the reasons for limited scientific information about some parasites of zoonotic concern have been examined. A correct compromise between conservation of wild carnivores and risk of introduction and spreading of parasites of public health concern is discussed in order to adequately manage the risk of zoonotic nematodes of wild carnivores in line with the 'One Health' approach.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Parasitology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Parasitology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
600 Technology
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Parasitology
Life Sciences > Animal Science and Zoology
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Uncontrolled Keywords:Animal Science and Zoology, Parasitology, Infectious Diseases, Baylisascaris; Capillaria; Dirofilaria; Nematodes; Onchocerca; Parasitic zoonosis; Thelazia; Toxocara; Trichinella; Wild carnivores
Language:English
Date:August 2019
Deposited On:13 Nov 2019 13:04
Last Modified:22 Apr 2020 21:20
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:2213-2244
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2018.12.011
PubMed ID:31338295

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