To investigate focal therapy using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of localized prostate cancer (CaP), we analyzed the safety and complications of this procedure.
Patients (pts) eligible for this multicenter prospective cohort study suffered from low to intermediate risk localized CaP with no prior treatment. After tumor identification on multiparametric MRI and in prostate biopsy, the lesions were treated with HIFU observing a safety margin of 8 to 10 mm. Adverse events (AE) after 30 and 90 days, as well as the required interventions were assessed and stratified for treatment localizations.
Of the 98 men included in the study in two European centers, 35 (35.7%) experienced AEs in the first 30 days after HIFU intervention with Clavien-Dindo grade ≤ II: 15 pts (15.3%) had a postoperative urinary tract infection and 26 pts (26.5%) a urinary retention. Four pts (4.1%) underwent subsequent intervention (Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa/b). The number of late postoperative complications occurring between 30 and 90 days after intervention was low (2.0%). The highest complication rate was associated with tumors located at the anterior base (50.0%). The inclusion of the urethra in the ablation zone led to AEs in 20 out of 41 cases (48.8%) and represented a significant risk factor for complications within 30 days (odds ratio = 2.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.08–5.96; P = 0.033).
Focal therapy of CaP lesions with a robotic HIFU-probe is safe and renders an acceptable rate of minor early AEs. The inclusion of the urethra in the ablation zone leads to an increase in early complications and should be avoided whenever possible.