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Cocaine Hydroxy Metabolites in Hair: Indicators for Cocaine Use Versus External Contamination


Scholz, Clementine; Quednow, Boris B; Herdener, Marcus; Kraemer, Thomas; Baumgartner, Markus R (2019). Cocaine Hydroxy Metabolites in Hair: Indicators for Cocaine Use Versus External Contamination. Journal of analytical toxicology, 43(7):543-552.

Abstract

Given that external contamination must be considered in hair analysis, there is still a demand for reliable tools to differentiate between incorporation of drugs into the hair as a result of drug consumption and of the hair shaft by external contamination. With the aim of establishing alternative discrimination parameters, some of the hydroxy metabolites of cocaine i.e., para- and meta-hydroxycocaine and para- and meta-hydroxybenzoylecgonine were measured together with cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, and norcocaine in five seized street cocaine samples and in hair samples from different cohorts: cohort 1 (in vivo external contamination study, n = 28), cohort 2 (individuals with self-reported cocaine use, n = 92), and cohort 3 (individuals with suspected cocaine use or contamination, n = 198). Statistical evaluation of the data of cohort 1 and 2 using ROC curves yielded metabolic ratios indicating cocaine use. Based on these results, a decision workflow was established for the discrimination between cocaine use and external contamination. The power of this approach was finally statistically validated across the different cohorts.

Abstract

Given that external contamination must be considered in hair analysis, there is still a demand for reliable tools to differentiate between incorporation of drugs into the hair as a result of drug consumption and of the hair shaft by external contamination. With the aim of establishing alternative discrimination parameters, some of the hydroxy metabolites of cocaine i.e., para- and meta-hydroxycocaine and para- and meta-hydroxybenzoylecgonine were measured together with cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, and norcocaine in five seized street cocaine samples and in hair samples from different cohorts: cohort 1 (in vivo external contamination study, n = 28), cohort 2 (individuals with self-reported cocaine use, n = 92), and cohort 3 (individuals with suspected cocaine use or contamination, n = 198). Statistical evaluation of the data of cohort 1 and 2 using ROC curves yielded metabolic ratios indicating cocaine use. Based on these results, a decision workflow was established for the discrimination between cocaine use and external contamination. The power of this approach was finally statistically validated across the different cohorts.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics
04 Faculty of Medicine > Neuroscience Center Zurich
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Legal Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Analytical Chemistry
Physical Sciences > Environmental Chemistry
Life Sciences > Toxicology
Physical Sciences > Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Physical Sciences > Chemical Health and Safety
Uncontrolled Keywords:Toxicology, Analytical Chemistry, Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis, Chemical Health and Safety, Environmental Chemistry
Language:English
Date:23 August 2019
Deposited On:31 Oct 2019 13:25
Last Modified:22 Apr 2020 21:24
Publisher:Preston Publications
ISSN:0146-4760
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkz022
PubMed ID:30927360
Project Information:
  • : FunderFP7
  • : Grant ID218264
  • : Project TitleDEMASST - Security of critical infrastructures related to mass transportation

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