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Polyclonal gut colonization with extended-spectrum cephalosporin- and/or colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a normal status for hotel employees on the island of Zanzibar, Tanzania


Büdel, Thomas; Kuenzli, Esther; Clément, Mathieu; Bernasconi, Odette J; Fehr, Jan; Mohammed, Ali Haji; Hassan, Nadir Khatib; Zinsstag, Jakob; Hatz, Christoph; Endimiani, Andrea (2019). Polyclonal gut colonization with extended-spectrum cephalosporin- and/or colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a normal status for hotel employees on the island of Zanzibar, Tanzania. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 74(10):2880-2890.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES For low-income countries, data regarding the intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) and colistin-resistant (CST-R) Enterobacteriaceae in the community are still scarce. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by analysing hotel employees in Zanzibar.
METHODS During June to July 2018, rectal swabs from 59 volunteers were screened implementing selective enrichments and agar plates. Species identification was achieved using MALDI-TOF MS. Strains were characterized using microdilution panels (MICs), microarray, PCRs for mcr-1/-8, repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR) and WGS.
RESULTS Colonization prevalence with ESC-R-, CST-R- and mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae were 91.5%, 66.1% and 18.6%, respectively (average: 2.2 strains per volunteer). Overall, 55 ESC-R Escherichia coli (3 also CST-R), 33 ESC-R Klebsiella pneumoniae (1 also CST-R), 17 CST-R E. coli and 21 CST-R K. pneumoniae were collected. The following main resistance genes were found: ESC-R E. coli (blaCTX-M-15-like, 51.0%), ESC-R K. pneumoniae (blaCTX-M-9-like, 42.9%), CST-R E. coli (mcr-1, 55%) and CST-R K. pneumoniae (D150G substitution in PhoQ). ESBL-producing E. coli mainly belonged to ST361, ST636 and ST131, whereas all those that were mcr-1 positive belonged to ST46 that carried mcr-1 in a 33 kb IncX4 plasmid. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae mainly belonged to ST17, ST1741 and ST101, whereas CST-R strains belonged to ST11.
CONCLUSIONS We recorded remarkably high colonization prevalence with ESC-R and/or CST-R Enterobacteriaceae in hotel staff. Further research in the local environment, livestock and food chain is warranted to understand this phenomenon. Moreover, as Zanzibar is a frequent holiday destination, attention should be paid to the risk of international travellers becoming colonized and thereby importing life-threatening pathogens into their low-prevalence countries.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES For low-income countries, data regarding the intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) and colistin-resistant (CST-R) Enterobacteriaceae in the community are still scarce. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by analysing hotel employees in Zanzibar.
METHODS During June to July 2018, rectal swabs from 59 volunteers were screened implementing selective enrichments and agar plates. Species identification was achieved using MALDI-TOF MS. Strains were characterized using microdilution panels (MICs), microarray, PCRs for mcr-1/-8, repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR) and WGS.
RESULTS Colonization prevalence with ESC-R-, CST-R- and mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae were 91.5%, 66.1% and 18.6%, respectively (average: 2.2 strains per volunteer). Overall, 55 ESC-R Escherichia coli (3 also CST-R), 33 ESC-R Klebsiella pneumoniae (1 also CST-R), 17 CST-R E. coli and 21 CST-R K. pneumoniae were collected. The following main resistance genes were found: ESC-R E. coli (blaCTX-M-15-like, 51.0%), ESC-R K. pneumoniae (blaCTX-M-9-like, 42.9%), CST-R E. coli (mcr-1, 55%) and CST-R K. pneumoniae (D150G substitution in PhoQ). ESBL-producing E. coli mainly belonged to ST361, ST636 and ST131, whereas all those that were mcr-1 positive belonged to ST46 that carried mcr-1 in a 33 kb IncX4 plasmid. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae mainly belonged to ST17, ST1741 and ST101, whereas CST-R strains belonged to ST11.
CONCLUSIONS We recorded remarkably high colonization prevalence with ESC-R and/or CST-R Enterobacteriaceae in hotel staff. Further research in the local environment, livestock and food chain is warranted to understand this phenomenon. Moreover, as Zanzibar is a frequent holiday destination, attention should be paid to the risk of international travellers becoming colonized and thereby importing life-threatening pathogens into their low-prevalence countries.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 October 2019
Deposited On:31 Oct 2019 13:55
Last Modified:29 Feb 2020 08:08
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0305-7453
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz296
PubMed ID:31361004

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